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Table 1 Authors and publication years of the included studies, and the letter denoting these studies.

From: A structured review of reasons for ecstasy use and related behaviours: pointers for future research

Authors and number in reference list Year l* Country Time Sampling method Measurement N % ♀ Age
Solowij, Hall & Lee [40] 1992 A Australia NR RDS Questionnaire 100 39% 27
Fountain, Bartlett, Griffiths, Gossop, Boys & Strang [32] 1999 B UK NR Selected sample with diverse experience with drugs Interview 100 36% 18
Topp, Hando, Dillon, Roche & Solowij [43] 1999 C Australia NR RDS, advertisement, radio, flyers Interviews 329 51% 23
Boys, Marsden & Strang [27] 2001 D UK August-November 1998 RDS Questionnaire 364 44% 19
Hansen [35] 2001 E Australia July 1998-February 2000 Explicit selection Participant observation & interviews 31 42% 25
Winstock, Griffiths & Stewart [46] 2001 F UK June 1999 Questionnaire in magazine Questionnaire 1151 40% 24
Dundes [30] 2003 G US October 2000 Distribution by students Questionnaire 719 55% 20
Fendrich, Wislar, Johnson & Hubbell [31] 2003 H US June 2001-January 2002 Random selection Audio Computer self-interview 627 61% 28
Verheyden, Henry & Curran [44] 2003 I UK NR Sampling in bars, private residences, clubs, universities, offices Questionnaire guided interview 430 45% 24
Verheyden, Maidment & Curran [45] 2003 J UK NR Sampling of ex-users from other study Questionnaire 47 0% 30
Carlson, Falck, McCaughan & Siegal [28] 2004 K US Spring 2001-Winter 2002 Convenience sample, RDS Focus groups & interviews 30 50% 22
Gourley [34] 2004 L Australia NR Explicit selection Interviews & observations 12 50% 21
Riley & Hayward [37] 2004 M UK February-March 2001 Sampling at dance venues Questionnaire 124 50% 25
Gamma, Jerome, Liechti & Sumnall [33] 2005 N US** NR Links at websites Online survey 923 NR 19
Levy, O'Grady, Wish & Arria [36] 2005 O US 2003 Flyers Focus groups 30 57% 20
Soellner [39] 2005 P Germany 1994–1998 Random sample Computer assisted interviews 2246 NR NR
Allott & Redman [25] 2006 Q Australia June-December 2004 Convenience sample, RDS, advertisement Questionnaire 116 51% 27
Copeland, Dillon & Gascoigne [29] 2006 R Australia NR NR Interviews 216 47% 26
Rodgers, Buchanan, Pearson, Parrott, Ling, Hefferman & Scholey [38] 2006 S US, EUR** NR Links on websites Online questionnaire 209 40% 16–20
Sumnall, Cole & Jerome [42] 2006 T US, UK, Australia, Eire** NR RDS, printed posters, advertisement, key informant access Questionnaire 268 37% 26
Sterk, Theall & Elison [41] 2007 U US NR Respondent driven sampling Computer assisted interviews 261 30% 21
Bellis, Hughes, Calafat, Juan, Ramon, Rodriguez, Mendes, Schnitzer & Phillips-Howard [26] 2008 V Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Austria, Germany, UK NR RDS Questionnaire 146 49% 21
  1. * = letter used in Tables 2 and 3 to refer to this study, ** = probably primarily these region(s) (internet study), US = United States, UK = United Kingdom, EUR = Europe, RDS = respondent driven sampling (e.g. snowballing), NR = not reported