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Table 2 Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for having feelings of hopelessness according to categories of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in 2428 middle-aged men.

From: Leisure-time physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and feelings of hopelessness in men

HOPELESSNESS (upper vs. lower tertiles)
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Total LTPA (min/week)
<270 min/week 1 1 1 1
270–486 min/week 0.73 (0.59–0.90) 0.76 (0.61–0.94) 0.75 (0.60–0.95) 0.81 (0.65–1.02)
>486 min/week 0.74 (0.60–0.90) 0.73 (0.59–0.91) 0.76 (0.61–0.94) 0.78 (0.63–0.97)
p 0.002 0.002 0.009 0.022
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Low-intensity LTPA (<4.5 METs, min/week)
<111 min/week 1 1 1 1
111–270 min/week 0.79 (0.64–0.98) 0.81 (0.65–1.01) 0.83 (0.66–1.05) 0.81 (0.64–1.02)
≥271 min/week 0.90 (0.74–1.10) 0.85 (0.69–1.04) 0.88 (0.71–1.10) 0.91 (0.73–1.14)
p 0.292 0.102 0.252 0.393
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Moderate-to-vigorous LTPA (≥ 4.5 METs, min/week)
≤60 min/week 1 1 1 1
61–150 min/week 0.64 (0.52–0.81) 0.81 (0.64–1.02) 0.80 (0.62–1.02) 0.82 (0.64–1.04)
≥150 min/week 0.59 (0.49–0.72) 0.73 (0.60–0.90) 0.73 (0.59–0.90) 0.72 (0.58–0.89)
p < 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.002
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Vigorous LTPA (≥ 7.5 METs, min/week)
<10 min/week 1 1 1 1
10–59 min/week 0.53 (0.43–0.64) 0.67 (0.55–0.83) 0.69 (0.56–0.86) 0.67 (0.54–0.83)
≥60 min/week 0.43 (0.34–0.54) 0.61 (0.47–0.77) 0.63 (0.49–0.81) 0.65 (0.51–0.84)
p < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
VO2max(ml•kg-1-1min)
≤28.9 1 1 1 1
29.0–35.6 0.66 (0.54–0.82) 0.75 (0.60–0.94) 0.81 (0.64–1.03) 0.87 (0.69–1.10)
≥35.7 0.53 (0.41–0.68) 0.69 (0.53–0.91) 0.74 (0.54–1.00) 0.87 (0.65–1.16)
p < 0.001 0.003 0.037 0.242
  1. Data are OR (95% Cl).
  2. Model 1, adjusted for age category (logistic regression).
  3. Model 2, adjusted for age category, smoking, alcohol consumption (abstainers and low, moderate and high intake according to g/wk consumption), cardiovascular disease and adulthood socioeconomic status.
  4. Model 3 adjusted for Model 2 and body mass index, serum C-reactive protein and plasma fibrinogen.
  5. Model 4 adjusted for Model 2 and elevated depressive symptoms (Human Population Laboratory Depression Scale).
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