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Table 1 Characteristics of the 2428 middle-aged men according to tertiles of hopelessness.

From: Leisure-time physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and feelings of hopelessness in men

  Low Middle High Pvalue*
N 757 803 868  
Age (years) 51.8 (5.6) 53.0 (5.0) 54.0 (4.5) < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.6 (3.3) 26.8 (3.5) 27.1 (3.8) 0.011
Waist to hip ratio 0.94 (0.06) 0.95 (0.06) 0.96 (0.06) < 0.001
Waist girth (cm) 89.7 (9.3) 90.7 (9.7) 92.8 (10.4) < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 132.7 (16.7) 134.2 (16.7) 135.2 (17.5) 0.014
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 88.3 (10.1) 88.7 (10.7) 89.2 (10.6) 0.201
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/l) 4.7 (0.8) 4.8 (1.2) 4.9 (1.4) 0.004
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.30 (0.29) 1.29 (0.30) 1.29 (0.31) 0.864
Serum triglyserides (mmol/l) 1.28 (0.77, 1.52) 1.29 (0.81, 1.61) 1.36 (0.83, 1.60) 0.090
Fasting serum insulin (mU/l) 11.1 (7.3, 13.1) 11.7 (7.4, 13.7) 12.0 (7.5, 14,0) 0.048
C-reactive protein (mg/l) 2.10 (0.64, 2.11) 2.28 (0.71, 2.35) 2.87 (0.78, 2.88) 0.001
Fibrinogen (g/l) 2.95 (0.54) 3.03 (0.57) 3.10 (0.59) < 0.001
Total LTPA (MET hours/year) 1799 (793, 2313) 1724 (759, 2179) 1611 (607, 2074) 0.041
Total LTPA (minutes/week) 466 (223, 602) 455 (202, 591) 449 (171, 601) 0.704
LTPA < 4.5 METs (minutes/week) 274 (82, 364) 287 (80, 362) 284 (73, 385) 0.728
LTPA ≥ 4.5 METs (minutes/week) 192 (48, 250) 168 (43, 229) 165 (21, 217) 0.030
LTPA ≥ 7.5 METs (minutes/week) 56 (3, 74) 49 (0, 57) 33 (0, 35) < 0.001
VO2max (ml × kg-1 × min-1) 32.1 (8.0) 30.4 (7.7) 28.5 (7.9) < 0.001
Alcohol consumption (g/week) 76 (7, 91) 67 (6, 83) 83 (5, 103) 0.096
Smoker (%) 26.2 21.2 36.6 < 0.001
Adult socioeconomic status 7.2(4.4) 9.3 (4.4) 11.2 (4.0) < 0.001
Metabolic syndrome (NCEP) (%) 8.8 13.4 17.6 < 0.001
Cardiovascular disease (%) 14.4 17.6 26.4 < 0.001
Diabetes (%) 5.0 7.3 6.9 0.140
Elevated depressive symptoms
(points on the HPL scale)
1.1 (0, 2.0) 1.7 (0, 2.0) 2.8 (1.0, 4.0) < 0.001
  1. Data are displayed as means ± SD, medians (interquartile ranges), or percentages.
  2. *ANOVA for continuous variables; chi-square for categorical variables. NCEP, National Cholesterol Education Program.
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