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Table 3 Meal patterns and food intake of Palestinian adolescent girls (n = 505) from North Gaza Strip by sociodemographic factors (%)a

From: Sociodemographic correlates of food habits among school adolescents (12–15 year) in north Gaza Strip

   Resident statusb Household SESc Mother educationf
  Total
(%)
Local
Citizen
(n = 186)
Refugee
(n = 315)
P Low
(n = 114)
Medium
(n = 249)
High
(n = 128)
p Low
(n = 290)
Medium
/high
(n = 207)
p
Meal pattern (7 t/w) d
Breakfast 59.0 57.0 60.3 0.26 45.6 61.4 65.6 0.003 57.2 59.9 0.31
Lunch 87.7 83.9 90.2 0.03 83.9 90.4 89.8 0.02 85.9 89.9 0.12
Dinner 46.5 45.2 47.6 0.33 36.0 47.0 54.7 0.01 47.6 45.4 0.35
3 meals/day 36.4 32.8 38.7 0.11 21.1 38.6 46.1 <0.001 47.6 45.4 0.35
Snacks 21.1 18.8 22.2 0.21 14.0 22.5 20.8 0.13 20.7 20.8 0.53
Food intake (weekly basis) e
Beef (>3 t/w) 7.9 8.6 7.6 0.49 2.6 7.6 7.9 0.01 6.6 9.7 0.14
Chicken (>3 t/w) 3.8 3.2 4.1 0.40 0.9 3.6 7.0 0.04 3.8 3.9 0.57
Bread (≥ 20 t/w) 68.9 66.7 70.5 0.21 66.7 72.3 65.6 0.33 70.0 66.7 0.24
Cookies (≥ 7 t/w) 19.6 10.8 25.1 <0.001 14.0 18.1 28.1 0.01 18.3 21.3 0.24
Soft drinks (≥ 7 t/w) 9.3 4.3 12.4 0.002 5.3 9.6 13.3 0.11 7.6 10.6 0.15
Eggs (≥ 7 t/w) 14.3 5.9 19.0 <0.001 6.1 15.7 20.3 0.01 12.7 17.4 0.08
Rice (≥ 7 t/w) 10.1 2.7 14.3 <0.001 2.6 14.5 9.4 0.003 7.9 13.5 0.03
Fruits (≥ 7 t/w) 16.2 11.3 19.4 0.01 8.8 16.1 21.9 0.02 14.5 18.4 0.15
Juice (≥ 7 t/w) 14.7 9.1 17.8 0.007 8.8 14.1 21.9 0.01 14.8 14.0 0.45
Chocolates (≥ 7 t/w) 17.0 10.8 21.0 0.002 8.8 17.7 24.2 0.01 15.9 17.9 0.32
Yogurt (≥ 7 t/w) 20.8 21.0 20.6 0.51 14.9 19.7 29.7 0.01 20.0 22.2 0.31
Vegetables (≥ 7 t/w) 34.1 18.8 42.9 0.005 20.2 32.1 52.3 <0.001 30.0 39.1 0.02
Milk (≥ 7 t/w) 29.9 29.6 30.5 0.47 17.5 30.9 38.3 0.002 26.9 34.3 0.047
Cheese (≥ 7 t/w) 35.0 26.3 40.6 0.001 15.8 34.1 54.7 <0.001 26.6 46.9 <0.001
Legumes (≥ 7 t/w) 14.7 14.0 15.2 0.34 13.2 16.1 14.1 0.74 15.5 14.0 0.37
Tea (≥ 20 t/w) 29.9 29.6 30.2 0.49 31.6 29.3 28.1 0.84 31.7 26.6 0.13
  1. χ2 test was used to compare differences between boys and girls. Statistical significance was considered at, p < 0.05
  2. aχ2 was used to compare differences between sociodemographic variables. P < 0.05 considered to be significant
  3. bPalestinian population is divided into two Resident status groups; refugees and local citizens. In which 70% of the Gaza Population is with refugee status while 30% of them are with local citizen status.
  4. cHousehold SES score was based on the possession of 6 household amenities; each item was given a value of 1.
  5. dThere are three meals consumed on a daily basis in the Palestinian context, in which lunch is the main family meal.
  6. eFoods items frequency intake was calculated on weekly basis and grouped into two categories according to their weekly consumption. Meat and chicken were grouped as > 3 times and 3 times or less per week, bread was grouped as < 20 times and ≥ 20 times per week and all other food items were grouped as <7 times and ≥ 7 times per week.
  7. fMother's education level was divided into two categories based on the numbers of years of education; (1) low was considered 11 years or less, (2) medium/high was considered 12 or more.
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