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Table 4 Medical risk factors – medication, allergies, invasive procedures, injections, blood transfusions, cigarettes and illegal drugs

From: A case-control study of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Switzerland: analysis of potential risk factors with regard to an increased CJD incidence in the years 2001–2004

     comparison with all control subjects
risk factor n total mean (SD) or % crude estimate age and sex adjusted estimate age, sex and education adjusted estimate
   cases n = 69 controls
n = 224
OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
regular GP visits1 292 61.8 20.1 6.43 (3.57–11.57) 0.000 6.44 (3.57–11.62) 0.000 6.33 (3.44–11.64) 0.000
regular medication 291 86.6 75.9 2.05 (0.95–4.40) 0.067 2.30 (1.05–5.05) 0.037 2.30 (1.04–5.10) 0.040
hormones, ever 292 14.7 22.3 0.60 (0.29–1.26) 0.177 0.66 (0.29–1.50) 0.319 0.67 (0.28–1.61) 0.366
allergies2 135 9.1 14.5 0.59 (0.20–1.73) 0.336 0.66 (0.22–2.05) 0.477 0.59 (0.18–1.95) 0.383
visit to a urologist3 171 32.6 39.8 0.73 (0.35–1.51) 0.395 0.75 (0.35–1.58) 0.447 0.79 (0.36–1.74) 0.559
visit to a psychiatrist 292 14.7 12.5 1.21 (0.55–2.63) 0.636 1.16 (0.53–2.58) 0.707 1.33 (0.57–3.12) 0.509
contact lenses 291 1.5 4.5 0.32 (0.04–2.58) 0.287 0.37 (0.05–3.02) 0.355 0.47 (0.06–3.86) 0.482
regular injections 290 16.7 23.2 0.66 (0.32–1.36) 0.259 0.68 (0.33–1.39) 0.285 0.65 (0.31–1.37) 0.256
vaccinations (> 1980) 288 64.1 63.0 1.05 (0.59–1.87) 0.870 1.03 (0.58–1.85) 0.915 1.10 (0.61–2.00) 0.753
acupuncture, ever 290 13.6 21.9 0.56 (0.26–1.22) 0.145 0.57 (0.26–1.26) 0.167 0.60 (0.27–1.34) 0.211
lumbar puncture, ever 289 10.8 25.5 0.35 (0.15–0.82) 0.015 0.34 (0.15–0.80) 0.013 0.32 (0.13–0.79) 0.013
blood transfusions 291 22.4 26.8 0.79 (0.41–1.50) 0.471 0.83 (0.43–1.58) 0.563 0.81 (0.41–1.56) 0.522
blood transfusions (> 1980) 291 6.0 11.6 0.48 (0.16–1.44) 0.191 0.52 (0.17–1.55) 0.240 0.51 (0.17–1.54) 0.231
blood donation 290 16.7 47.8 0.22 (0.11–0.44) 0.000 0.16 (0.07–0.33) 0.000 0.16 (0.07–0.34) 0.000
invasive dental treatment (> 1980) 290 78.8 62.5 2.23 (1.16–4.27) 0.016 2.25 (1.17–4.32) 0.015 2.63 (1.33–5.19) 0.006
tattoo's 290 1.5 1.8 0.85 (0.09–7.70) 0.882 0.91 (0.10–8.34) 0.933 0.87 (0.09–8.14) 0.906
piercings/earrings 290 13.4 19.6 0.63 (0.29–1.38) 0.251 0.73 (0.30–1.78) 0.483 0.73 (0.29–1.83) 0.503
current cigarette smoker 284 13.3 29.0 0.38 (0.17–0.84) 0.016 0.34 (0.15–0.76) 0.009 0.34 (0.15–0.78) 0.010
illegal drugs 289 1.5 4.5 0.33 (0.04–2.66) 0.301 0.32 (0.04–2.53) 0.278 0.37 (0.05–3.04) 0.355
  1. 1) other than for CJD 2) GP controls only 3) male subjects only