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Table 1 Sociodemographic factors

From: A case-control study of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Switzerland: analysis of potential risk factors with regard to an increased CJD incidence in the years 2001–2004

     comparison with all control subjects
risk factor n
total
mean (SD) or % crude estimate age and sex adjusted estimate age, sex and education adjusted estimate
   cases
n = 69
controls n = 224 OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
age (years) 293 68.7 (9.6) 69.6 (8.2) 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.449 0.99 (0.96–1.02)1 0.444 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.450
age-group 41 – 59 years 35 15.9 10.7 15   15   15  
age-group 60 – 69 years 103 33.3 35.7 0.63 (0.27–1.47) 0.283 0.63 (0.27–1.47) 0.281 0.61 (0.25–1.50) 0.282
age-group 70 – 79 years 112 36.2 38.8 0.63 (0.27–1.45) 0.277 0.61 (0.26–1.42) 0.249 0.61 (0.25–1.49) 0.278
age-group 80 – 85 years 43 14.5 14.7 0.66 (0.24–1.81) 0.420 0.68 (0.25–1.86) 0.452 0.65 (0.23–1.87) 0.427
sex (male) 293 65.2 57.1 1.41 (0.81–2.47) 0.234 1.41 (0.80–2.47)1 0.232 1.70 (0.93–3.08) 0.080
education: ≥ 10 school years 289 44.6 71.4 0.32 (0.18–0.57) 0.000 0.29 (0.16–0.52) 0.000 0.29 (0.16–0.52) 0.000
education: N° of school years 289 11.0 (3.6) 12.1 (3.2) 0.90 (0.82–0.98) 0.021 0.88 (0.80–0.97) 0.009 0.88 (0.80–0.97) 0.009
education: ≤ 9 school years grouped 100 55.4 28.6 15   15   15  
education: 10–12 school years grouped 79 18.5 29.9 0.32 (0.15–0.67) 0.002 0.31 (0.15–0.66) 0.002 0.31 (0.15–0.66) 0.002
education: ≥ 13 school years grouped 100 26.2 41.5 0.32 (0.17–0.63) 0.001 0.31 (0.16–0.61) 0.001 0.28 (0.14–0.55) 0.000
marital status (married) 293 79.7 72.8 1.47 (0.76–2.83) 0.250 1.32 (0.67–2.61) 0.425 1.32 (0.65–2.67) 0.445
having a partner 293 79.7 73.7 1.40 (0.73–2.71) 0.311 1.25 (0.63–2.28) 0.527 1.24 (0.61–2.53) 0.551
residence in German speaking cantons (vs. French & Italian speaking) 293 76.8 75.9 1.05 (0.56–1.99) 0.876 1.08 (0.56–2.07) 0.822 1.03 (0.52–2.02) 0.931
country of birth (foreign2) 292 13.2 19.2 0.64 (0.30–1.40) 0.263 0.64 (0.29–1.38) 0.254 0.69 (0.31–1.52) 0.355
having lived abroad2 (> 1980) 289 6.1 4.0 1.53 (0.46–5.15) 0.489 1.46 (0.42–5.04) 0.549 1.60 (0.46–5.74) 0.471
frequent travels abroad
(= once per year, > 1980)4
119 83.3 35.4 9.13 (3.80–21.97) 0.000 8.61 (3.47–21.34) 0.000 9.31 (3.63–23.91) 0.000
travel history to the U.K. (> 1980) 276 7.6 22.4 0.28 (0.10–0.82) 0.020 0.27 (0.09–0.79) 0.017 0.29 (0.10–0.86) 0.026
travel history to tropical countries (> 1980) 276 15.1 28.3 0.45 (0.20–1.01) 0.053 0.44 (0.19–0.99) 0.046 0.43 (0.19–1.00) 0.045
left-handed3 (vs. right) 290 9.1 10.7 0.83 (0.33–2.13) 0.704 0.83 (0.32–2.14) 0.701 0.76 (0.29–1.98) 0.577
dementia in family history 291 19.4 15.6 0.77 (0.38–1.56) 0.466 0.78 (0.38–1.59) 0.494 0.64 (0.30–1.37) 0.252
  1. 1) only sex or age adjusted, respectively 2) other than Switzerland 3) including ambidextrous 4) GP controls only 5) reference category