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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis: odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for fear of falling and avoidance of activity for socio-demographic, health-related and psychosocial variables

From: Socio-demographic, health-related and psychosocial correlates of fear of falling and avoidance of activity in community-living older persons who avoid activity due to fear of falling

  Fear of falling Avoidance of activity
  Mild Severe Mild Severe
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Socio-demographic
-Age Reference 1.04 (1.00 – 1.08) Reference 1.04 (1.00 – 1.09)
-Sex (female) Reference 2.28 (1.41 – 3.69) Reference 1.40 (0.89 – 2.19)
-Educational level (low)1 Reference 1.03 (0.68 – 1.56) --- ------------- --- -----------
-Living alone Reference 0.87 (0.56 – 1.34) ---- ------------ --- -----------
Health-related
-Activity of daily living2 Reference 1.17 (1.11 – 1.23) Reference 1.20 (1.14 – 1.27)
-Impaired vision2 Reference 1.08 (0.94 – 1.23) Reference 1.07 (0.93 – 1.22)
-Impaired hearing2 ---- ------------ --- ----------- ---- ------------ --- -----------
-Perceived general health (poor/fair) Reference 1.07 (0.67 – 1.71) Reference 1.32 (0.82 – 2.14)
-Number of chronic conditions Reference 0.99 (0.87 – 1.13) Reference 1.04 (0.91 – 1.19)
-Cognitive functioning3 ---- ------------ --- ----------- ---- ------------ --- -----------
-One or more falls in previous six months Reference 1.49 (1.01 – 2.20) Reference 1.31 (0.89 – 1.95)
Psychosocial
-General self-efficacy3 Reference 0.99 (0.97 – 1.01) Reference 1.00 (0.98 – 1.02)
-Mastery3 Reference 1.01 (0.96 – 1.06) Reference 0.97 (0.92 – 1.02)
-Social support interactions3 ---- ------------ --- ----------- ---- ------------ --- -----------
-Feelings of loneliness (all the time/mostly/often) Reference 1.26 (0.69 – 2.31) Reference 0.73 (0.41 – 1.30)
-Feelings of anxiety2 Reference 1.03 (0.98 – 1.10) Reference 1.05 (0.99 – 1.11)
-Symptoms of depression2 Reference 1.05 (0.98 – 1.13) Reference 0.96 (0.90 – 1.03)
  1. Note. Only significant demographic, health-related and psychosocial variables from Table 2 were included. Variables were entered simultaneously.
  2. 1 Low education refers to elementary school, junior high school or lower vocational level. 2 Higher level refers to poorer functioning. 3 Higher level refers to better functioning