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Table 2 Univariate associations between socio-demographic, health-related and psychosocial variables and fear of falling and avoidance of activity

From: Socio-demographic, health-related and psychosocial correlates of fear of falling and avoidance of activity in community-living older persons who avoid activity due to fear of falling

  Fear of falling Avoidance of activity
  Mild
(n = 298)
Severe
(n = 242)
Mild
(n = 315)
Severe
(n = 225)
Socio-demographic
-Age (M, SD) 77.2 (4.6) 78.2 (4.9)* 77.1 (4.7) 78.3 (4.8)*
-Sex (female) 64.8% 80.6%** 67.9% 77.3%**
-Educational level (low)1 59.4% 66.8%** 59.9% 66.7%
-Living alone 50.0% 60.3%** 52.4% 57.8%
Health-related
-Activity of daily living (M, SD)2 15.9 (3.5) 19.0 (4.9)* 15.8 (3.4) 19.4 (5.0)*
-Impaired vision (M, SD)2 2.7 (1.3) 3.1 (1.6)* 2.7 (1.3) 3.1 (1.7)*
-Impaired hearing (M, SD)2 2.7 (1.1) 2.8 (1.1) 2.7 (1.0) 2.8 (1.1)
-Perceived general health (poor/fair) 64.9% 75.3%** 63.3% 78.4%**
-Number of chronic conditions (M, SD) 2.2 (1.5) 2.5 (1.7)* 2.1 (1.5) 2.6 (1.7)*
-Cognitive functioning (M, SD)3 32.1 (3.8) 31.8 (3.7) 32.1 (4.0) 31.7 (3.4)
-One or more falls in previous six months 49.0% 63.6%** 50.3% 62.9%**
Psychosocial
-General self-efficacy (M, SD)3 55.8 (10.2) 52.3 (11.9)* 55.6 (10.4) 52.4 (11.9)*
-Mastery (M, SD)3 21.7 (4.5) 20.6 (4.7)* 21.9 (4.7) 20.2 (4.4)*
-Social support interactions (M, SD)3 29.5 (6.3) 29.5 (7.3) 29.9 (6.3) 29.1 (7.3)
-Feelings of loneliness (all the time/mostly/often) 13.5% 21.3%** 12.5% 23.4%**
-Feelings of anxiety (M, SD)2 6.5 (4.1) 8.4 (4.8)* 6.6 (4.2) 8.5 (4.7)*
-Symptoms of depression (M, SD)2 6.1 (3.6) 7.7 (4.2)* 6.3 (3.7) 7.5 (4.2)*
  1. p < 0.05 * T-test ** Chi-square
  2. 1 Low education refers to elementary school, junior high school or lower vocational level. 2 Higher level refers to poorer functioning. 3 Higher level refers to better functioning