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Table 1 Distribution (%) of childhood and current circumstances and health behaviours by level of education and their associations (OR) with poor self-rated health in women and men aged 18–29 years in Finland. N = 1 282.

From: The contribution of childhood circumstances, current circumstances and health behaviour to educational health differences in early adulthood

  LEVEL OF EDUCATION POOR SELF-RATED HEALTH
EXPLANATORY FACTOR All High Middle Primary     
  % % % % pa OR pb pc
Gender         
Women 53 61 45 47   1.00   
Men 47 39 55 53 0.000 1.15 0.477  
Age         
18–23 61 57 65 60   1.00   
24–29 39 43 35 40 0.032 1.17 0.434 0.166
CHILDHOOD CIRCUMSTANCES         
Parental education         
Secondary 25 37 16 5   1.00   
Intermediate 24 27 21 21   2.01**   
Primary and some vocational 30 22 35 43   1.42   
Primary only 18 11 25 22   1.84*   
Don't know or did not have parents 3 2 2 8 0.000 1.64 0.149 0.866
Childhood family structure         
Two parents 92 93 93 81   1.00   
One parent 8 7 7 15   2.24**   
Other 0.6 0.5 0.2 3 0.000 3.14 0.008 0.053*
Childhood residence         
Urban municipalities 54 58 48 52   1.00   
Semi-urban municipalities 18 17 20 17   0.73   
Rural municipalities 27 23 31 28   1.24   
Abroad 1 1 1 2 0.039 0.37 0.239 0.134
Childhood adversities (yes)         
Long-term financial problems 17 16 17 23 0.235 2.09** 0.001 0.602
Parental regular unemployment 11 8 15 11 0.006 1.31 0.349 0.981
Parental divorce 20 17 21 37 0.000 1.65** 0.022 0.505
Serious conflicts within the family 24 25 23 28 0.484 2.42** 0.000 0.476
Parental mental health problem 8 7 7 10 0.664 1.80* 0.064 0.152
Parental alcohol problem 20 18 21 30 0.026 1.66** 0.026 0.113
Own serious or chronic illness 4 3 3 6 0.328 4.80** 0.000 0.250
Parental serious illness or disability 14 12 15 20 0.075 2.55** 0.000 0.854
Being bullied at school 25 22 25 35 0.024 2.89** 0.000 0.377
CURRENT CIRCUMSTANCES         
Main activity         
Full-time of part-time employed 60 58 64 48   1.00   
Student 22 33 13 1   1.07   
Unemployed or laid off 8 3 10 26   2.89**   
Other 10 5 13 25 0.000 1.52 0.001 0.449
Current family structure         
Married or cohabiting 53 57 48 51   1.00   
Living alone 26 32 21 16   1.32   
Living with own parents or other 21 11 30 32 0.000 1.20 0.460 0.254
Current residence         
Big city 44 53 33 44   1.00   
Urban or semi-urban 39 36 44 32   0.67*   
Rural 17 11 22 24 0.000 0.65 0.108 0.048**
Having children (yes) 21 15 25 35 0.000 1.16 0.527 0.137
HEALTH BEHAVIOUR         
Daily smoking 27 18 32 52 0.000 2.32** 0.000 0.204
Heavy drinking 6 4 6 25 0.000 2.63** 0.001 0.808
Obesity 7 5 8 11 0.035 2.69** 0.002 0.514
Leisure time physical activity         
4 times or more a week 29 31 26 35   1.00   
1–3 times a week 54 57 52 42   1.09   
Less than once a week 17 12 21 23 0.000 3.18** 0.000 0.278
Use of vegetables         
6–7 days a week 52 62 44 34   1.00   
3–5 days a week 27 24 30 31   1.16   
Less than 3 days a week 20 13 26 35 0.000 1.80** 0.031 0.335
  1. p < 0.1, **p < 0.05
  2. a Significance of the difference between educational level and explanatory factor, Chi2-test
  3. b Significance of the difference between explanatory factor and poor self-rated health, Wald test p-value within the group
  4. c Significance of the interaction between explanatory factor and gender, Wald test p-value
  5. d Interaction gender*childhood family structure p = 0.053. The association between family structure and poor SRH is stronger in men than in women, p = 0.000 and p = 0.102, respectively