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Table 1 Risk factors for HIV infection among incarcerated cases (n = 147) before and after a period of incarceration compared to matched controls (n = 742)

From: Elevated HIV risk behaviour among recently incarcerated injection drug users in a Canadian setting: a longitudinal analysis

Risk factor Before After p-value*
  n % n %  
Frequent cocaine injection      
   Incarcerated 46 31.3 37 25.2 0.170
   Matched control 205 27.6 150 20.2 < 0.001
Frequent speedball injection      
   Incarcerated group 12 8.2 17 11.6 0.297
   Matched control 70 9.4 67 9.0 0.748
Need help injecting      
   Incarcerated group 46 31.3 27 18.4 0.001
   Matched control 202 27.2 142 19.1 < 0.001
Binge drug use      
   Incarcerated group 66 44.9 45 30.6 0.005
   Matched control 271 36.5 210 28.3 < 0.001
Unstable housing      
   Incarcerated group 100 68.0 101 68.7 0.889
   Matched control 418 56.3 414 55.8 0.806
Denied addiction treatment      
   Incarcerated group 24 16.3 19 12.9 0.411
   Matched control 95 12.8 81 10.9 0.230
Resident in the DTES      
   Incarcerated group 96 65.3 78 53.1 0.016
   Matched control 377 50.8 343 46.2 0.011
Public drug use      
   Incarcerated group 32 21.8 22 15.0 0.114
   Matched control 116 15.6 110 14.8 0.602
Sex trade participation      
   Incarcerated group 36 24.5 25 17.0 0.012
   Matched control 154 20.8 116 15.6 < 0.001
Syringe sharing      
   Incarcerated 38 25.9 33 22.5 0.398
   Matched control 231 31.3 133 17.9 < 0.001
Condoms w/casual partners      
   Incarcerated 27 18.4 23 15.7 0.505
   Matched control 116 15.6 103 13.9 0.312
Condoms w/regular partners      
   Incarcerated 30 20.4 28 19.1 0.739
   Matched control 133 17.9 113 15.2 0.121
  1. * p-value associated with McNemar's test of equality