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Table 1 Demographic and lifestyle characteristics according to symptoms of depression among study participants

From: Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

Characteristics Depression* P-value
  No (N = 899)
n (%)
Yes(N = 277)
n (%)
 
Age (yr) α 21.5 ± 0.1 21.6 ± 0.2 0.181
College Education Level**    
   Freshman 345 (38.5) 111 (40.4) 0.824
   Sophomore 179 (20.0) 48 (17.3)  
   Junior 226 (25.2) 71 (25.6)  
   Senior 146 (16.3) 45 (16.2)  
Religion    
   Orthodox 489 (54.4) 144 (52.4) 0.194
   Protestant 268 (29.8) 88 (31.8)  
   Muslim 72 (8.0) 15 (5.4)  
   Other 60 (6.7) 28 (10.1)  
Childhood Residence    
   Rural 427 (47.9) 141 (51.5) 0.298
   Urban 465 (52.1) 133 (48.5)  
Khat chewing    
   No 613 (69.5) 176 (65.2) 0.104
   Yes 269 (30.5) 94 (34.8)  
Smoking    
   No 747 (88.0) 214 (81.4) 0.005
   Yes 102 (12.0) 49 (18.6)  
Alcohol Drinking    
   No 447 (52.5) 126 (48.1) 0.121
   Yes 405 (47.5) 136 (51.9)  
Witnessing Parental Violence    
   No 556 (75.0) 148 (65.5) 0.005
   Yes 185 (25.0) 78 (34.5)  
Negative Life Events    
   None 156 (17.4) 18 (6.5) <0.001
   1 98 (10.9) 20 (7.2)  
   2 98 (10.9) 34 (12.3)  
   3 112 (12.5) 47 (17.0)  
   ≥4 435 (48.4) 158 (57.0)  
  1. α Mean ± SEM
  2. *No (Score < 9) and Yes (Score ≥ 10)
  3. **Numbers/percentages may not add up to the total number due to missing data