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Table 2 Key differences between the translational framework for public health research and the linear translational medicine pathway

From: A translational framework for public health research

Characteristics of the translational framework for public health research
Redefines the endpoint from that of institutionalising effective interventions to that of improving population health
Incorporates the epidemiological traditions of population health surveillance and the identification of modifiable risk factors
Reflects a spectrum of determinants of health from the individual to the collective level and a corresponding spectrum of levels of intervention
Embraces a wide range of biomedical, social and environmental 'basic sciences' that have roles throughout the framework, not merely in supplying knowledge to be implemented
Identifies a pivotal role for thoughtful and inclusive evidence synthesis
Describes the iterative and bidirectional processes by which public health research and public health action may influence each other
Recognises the non-linear and intersectoral interfaces with the public realm where decisions that influence population health are made