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Table 3 Matched sets according to the exposure status of the suspected typhoid cases (n = 65) and controls (n = 65), South Dumdum municipality, "North 24 Parganas" District, West Bengal, India, February 2007

From: A typhoid fever outbreak in a slum of South Dumdum municipality, West Bengal, India, 2007: Evidence for foodborne and waterborne transmission

   Number of case control pairs according to exposure status  
Characteristics   Concordant Discordant Matched odds ratio
(95% CI)1
   Case exposed Case unexposed Case exposed Case unexposed  
Demographic status Sex 12 25 13 15 0.87 (0.41–1.8)
  Education > secondary 46 1 4 14 0.28 (0.09–0.87)
  Household > 4 members 8 26 25 6 4.2 (1.7–11.1)
  Monthly family income < 1500 INR 1 50 12 2 6.0 (1.3–26.8)
  Anyone ill in neighborhood 11 19 25 10 2.5 (1.2–5.2)
Food habits Eating outside 30 2 20 13 1.5 (0.8–3.1)
  Food from sweet shop 2 10 19 31 5 6.2 (2.4–16)
  Food from shop S 1 48 9 7 1.3 (0.48–3.5)
  Food from shop G 7 30 9 19 0.47 (0.20–1.0)
  Sweets 11 19 19 16 1.2 (0.60–2.3)
  Curd 6 31 17 11 1.5 (0.72–3.3)
  Paratha 1 42 15 7 2.1 (0.87–5.3)
  Street ghugni 0 43 14 8 1.8 (0.73–4.2)
  Street pickle 0 58 3 4 0.75 (0.17–3.4)
  Street panipuri 8 30 14 13 1.1 (0.50–2.3)
  Ice cream 7 28 18 12 1.5 (0.72–3.1)
  Use of spoon to serve food 23 3 1 38 0.03 (0–0.2)
Drinking water Piped water only 10 22 29 4 7.3 (2.5–21)
  Tube well water only 34 11 4 16 0.25 (0.08–0.75)
  Purification 3 36 8 18 0.44 (0.19–1.0)
  Covered container 44 1 4 16 0.25 (0.08–0.75)
  Narrow mouth container 5 29 8 23 0.35 (0.15–0.76)
Hygienic practices Soap hand wash before food 41 1 15 8 1.9 (0.80–4.4)
  Soap hand wash after defecation 38 1 6 20 0.30 (0.12–0.75)
  Soap hand after urination 9 16 3 37 0.08 (0.03–0.26)
  1. 1Confidence interval
  2. 2Milk products