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Table 3 Relative risks of hip fracture according to categories of socioeconomic indicators, Germany, 1995–2004

From: Hip fractures and area level socioeconomic conditions: a population-based study

Socioeconomic indicator Relative Risk
  Univariate Poisson regression a Multiple Poisson regression b
   Total Sex-specific Age-specific (years)
  Total   male female <40 40–69 70+
Population density
(per increase of 643 persons per km2)
1.03** 1.01 1.02** 1.01* 0.99 1.02* 1.01*
Living space per person
(per decrease of 5 m2 per person)
0.97** 1.00 0.99 1.01 0.97 0.96 1.01
Non-German nationals
(per increase of 7%)
1.05** 0.96* 0.96* 0.96** 0.98 0.97 0.96**
Unemployment rate
(per increase of 6%)
0.98** 0.91** 0.94** 0.90** 1.08 0.95 0.89**
Welfare recipients quota
(per increase of 2%)
1.06** 1.07** 1.04** 1.08** 0.93** 1.04* 1.09**
Single parent families quota
(per increase of 2%)
1.01 1.02** 1.03** 1.02** 1.02 1.02 1.03**
Household income per person
(per decrease of 102 euro)
0.95** 1.00 1.00 0.99 1.03 1.01 0.99
  1. a Models including sex, age (0–39, 40–59, 60–69, 70–79, 80+ years), and each socioeconomic indicator separately
  2. b Model including sex and/or age, and all socioeconomic indicators * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01