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Table 3 Crude and adjusted prevalence of premature death in the family for each adverse childhood experience and ACE score

From: The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to a history of premature death of family members

Category of ACE N Crude prevalence (%) Adjusted prevalence (± SE) (%)* Adjusted OR 95% CI
Abuse      
   Emotional abuse      
No 15 508 46.9 46.7 (0.4) 1.0 Referent
Yes 1829 48.5 49.8 (1.1) 1.2 1.1–1.3
   Physical abuse      
No 12 425 46.0 45.5 (0.4) 1.0 Referent
Yes 4912 49.6 50.8 (0.7) 1.2 1.2–1.3
   Sexual abuse      
No 13 751 45.8 45.7 (0.4) 1.0 Referent
Yes 3586 51.9 52.0 (0.8) 1.3 1.2–1.4
Household dysfunction      
   Domestic violence      
No 15 136 46.2 46.1 (0.4) 1.0 Referent
Yes 2201 52.6 53.2 (1.1) 1.3 1.2–1.5
   Parental separation or divorce      
No 13 306 46.5 46.2 (0.4) 1.0 Referent
Yes 4031 48.8 49.6 (0.8) 1.1 1.1–1.2
   Mental illness in household      
No 13 978 46.4 46.1 (0.4) 1.0 Referent
Yes 3359 50.2 51.6 (0.9) 1.3 1.2–1.4
   Household substance abuse      
No 12 425 44.9 44.2 (0.4) 1.0 Referent
Yes 4912 52.7 54.8 (0.7) 1.5 1.4–1.7
   Criminal household member      
No 16 528 46.6 46.5 (0.4) 1.0 Referent
Yes 809 56.7 58.2 (1.8) 1.6 1.4–1.9
Neglect**      
   Emotional neglect      
No 7355 46.5 46.1 (0.6) 1.0 Referent
Yes 1274 51.0 51.3 (1.4) 1.2 1.1–1.4
   Physical neglect      
No 7774 46.1 46.1 (0.6) 1.0 Referent
Yes 855 56.8 56.9 (1.7) 1.5 1.3–1.8
ACE score (Number of ACEs)      
0 6078 43.9 42.4 (0.6) 1.0 Referent
1 4472 46.7 46.6 (0.7) 1.2 1.1–1.3
2 2706 47.2 48.2 (0.9) 1.3 1.2–1.4
3 1681 49.8 51.3 (1.2) 1.4 1.3–1.6
≥ 4 2400 54.6 56.8 (1.1) 1.8 1.6–2.0
  1. * Adjusted for education, age, sex and race.
  2. ** Wave 2 data only (N = 8629).