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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for adolescent daily cigarette smoking and occasional smoking

From: Social correlates of cigarette smoking among Icelandic adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study

Variables Occasional Smoking Daily Smoking
  % n/Na Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)b % n/Na Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)b
Family structure       
   Both parents 6.7% (314/4700) 1.0   6.6% (309/4695) 1.0  
   Other arrangements 9.3% (167/1793) 1.44 (1.18–1.75) 0.99 (0.73–1.36) 16.3% (317/1943) 2.76 (2.34–3.27) 1.52 (1.09–2.13)
Mother's education       
   College or higher 7.1% (401/5687) 1.0   8.5% (490/5776) 1.0  
   Secondary school or less 10.0% (74/741) 1.46 (1.13–1.90) 1.06 (0.70–1.59) 16.1% (128/795) 2.07 (1.68–2.56) 1.01 (0.66–1.55)
Father's education       
   College or higher 7.2% (425/5892) 1.0   8.8% (529/5996) 1.0  
   Secondary school or less 8.4% (47/561) 1.18 (0.86–1.61) 0.90 (0.54–1.48) 15.3% (93/607) 1.87 (1.47–2.37) 1.05 (0.64–1.73)
Family income       
   Better off 7.2% (268/3723) 1.0   10.5% (406/3861) 1.0  
   Worse off 7.4% (204/2743) 1.04 (0.86–1.25) 1.07 (0.80–1.44) 7.8% (215/2754) 0.72 (0.61–0.86) 0.97 (0.68–1.36)
Parental support       
   More 6.2% (220/3573) 1.0   6.6% (237/3590) 1.0  
   Less 8.6% (245/2857) 1.43 (1.18–1.73) 0.80 (0.59–1.07) 12.5% (373/2985) 2.02 (1.70–2.40) 0.90 (0.65–1.26)
Time spent with parents       
   More 4.3% (122/2836) 1.0   3.2% (91/2805) 1.0  
   Less 9.6% (347//3614) 2.36 (1.91–2.92) 1.33 (0.97–1.84) 13.8% (525/3792) 4.79 (3.81–6.02) 2.27 (1.50–3.44)
Parental control       
   More 5.4% (157/2909) 1.0   5.5% (159/2911) 1.0  
   Less 8.8% (302/3441) 1.67 (1.38–2.06) 0.91 (0.68–1.23) 12.3% (439/3578) 2.42 (2.01–2.92) 1.12 (0.79–1.59)
Perceived parental reactions if one would smoke cigarettes       
   Very much/much against 6.7% (409/6126) 1.0   5.4% (325/6042) 1.0  
   Rather against/do not care 20.7% (61/294) 3.66 (2.71–4.94) 2.35 (1.49–3.72) 54.8% (282/515) 21.29 (17.32–26.17) 8.92 (6.04–13.17)
Interparental serious verbal conflict       
   No 6.1% (314/5148) 1.0   7.5% (392/5226) 1.0  
   Yes, at some point 11.8% (168/1423) 2.06 (1.69–2.51) 1.19 (0.86–1.64) 16.1% (240/1495) 2.36 (1.99–2.80) 1.04 (0.72–1.50)
Parent-adolescent serious verbal conflict       
   No 4.4% (190/4334) 1.0   4.6% (200/4344) 1.0  
   Yes, at some point 13.1% (292/2237) 3.27 (2.71–3.96) 1.72 (1.27–2.33) 18.2% (432/2377) 4.60 (3.86–5.49) 2.83 (1.98–4.04)
Interparental violence       
   No 6.7% (419/6224) 1.0   8.2% (516/6321) 1.0  
   Yes, at some point 18.2% (63/347) 3.07 (2.30–4.11) 1.74 (1.02–2.96) 29.0% (116/400) 4.60 (3.64–5.81) 0.80 (0.44–1.47)
Parent-adolescent violence       
   No 6.9% (434/6312) 1.0   8.2% (522/6400) 1.0  
   Yes, at some point 18.5% (48/259) 3.08 (2.22–4.28) 0.86 (0.46–1.60) 34.3% (110/321) 5.87 (4.58–7.52) 1.53 (0.85–2.78)
Father's smoking       
   No 6.4% (259/4061) 1.0   7.0% (287/4089) 1.0  
   Yes 9.4% (139/1483) 1.52 (1.22–1.88) 1.03 (0.74–1.42) 17.1% (277/1621) 2.73 (2.29–3.26) 1.12 (0.80–1.59)
Mother's smoking       
   No 6.6% (282/4261) 1.0   6.5% (276/4255) 1.0  
   Yes 8.9% (126/1411) 1.38 (1.11–1.72) 1.04 (0.74–1.47) 18.5% (292/1577) 3.28 (2.75–3.91) 1.69 (1.20–2.40)
Sibling's smoking       
   No 6.1% (268/4366) 1.0   6.6% (289/4387) 1.0  
   Yes 11.5% (132/1150) 1.98 (1.59–2.47) 1.19 (0.87–1.65) 20.3% (260/1278) 3.62 (3.02–4.34) 1.55 (1.10–2.18)
Perceived respect from peers if would smoke cigarettes       
   Less respect 6.5% (403/6223) 1.0   7.2% (452/6272) 1.0  
   More respect 24.6% (72/293) 4.71 (3.54–6.25) 2.25 (1.43–3.53) 43.6% (171/392) 9.96 (7.98–12.43) 3.27 (2.09–5.13)
Friends cigarette smoking       
   None 1.2% (34/2910) 1.0   0.5% (14/2890) 1.0  
   Some-all 12.5% (443/3547) 12.07 (8.49–17.17) 5.68 (3.38–9.55) 16.1% (595/3699) 39.38 (23.12–67.06) 17.17 (6.18–47.71)
Physical activity       
   More 4.8% (135/2839) 1.0   3.9% (110/2814) 1.0  
   Less 9.3% (322/3481) 2.04 (1.66–2.51) 1.33 (0.98–1.80) 13.1% (476/3635) 3.70 (2.99–4.59) 2.15 (1.48–3.13)
Healthy nutrition important       
   Agree 6.9% (389/5628) 1.0   7.7% (435/5674) 1.0  
   Disagree 10.1% (69/684) 1.51 (1.15–1.98) 0.94 (0.62–1.42) 19.5% (149/764) 2.92 (2.38–3.58) 1.35 (0.89–2.03)
Academic Achievement       
   Higher 5.1% (169/3330) 1.0   3.6% (119/3280) 1.0  
   Lower 9.8% (288/2929) 2.04 (1.68–2.48) 1.17 (0.88–1.57) 14.9% (463/3104) 4.66 (3.78–5.73) 2.12 (1.49–3.02)
Alcohol consumption 30 days       
   No 2.0% (92/4635) 1.0   1.4% (65/4608) 1.0  
   Yes 21.1% (384/1816) 13.24 (10.47–16.75) 8.81 (6.13–12.64) 28.1% (560/1992) 27.33 (21.00–35.58) 7.64 (5.11–11.41)
Smoke free tobacco use       
   No 4.9% (290/5882) 1.0   5.6% (330/5922) 1.0  
   Yes 29.4% (185/630) 8.02 (6.51–9.87) 3.57 (2.56–4.98) 39.9% (296/741) 11.27 (9.38–13.55) 5.74 (3.93–8.37)
  1. a Denominators vary from N as a result of differences in missing information.
  2. b The relationship with each variable in this column is adjusted for all other variables in the analysis and gender.