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Table 3 Adjusted* geometric means (95% confidence interval) by quartile of creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and smoking status.

From: The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men

  Quartile 1 < 0.18 μg/g Quartile 2 0.18–0.33 μg/g Quartile 3 0.34–0.62 μg/g Quartile 4 ≥ 0.63 μg/g p-trend
Total testosterone, ng/mL      
   Never smokers 5.03 (4.68, 5.41) 4.88 (4.27, 5.58) 4.12 (3.26, 5.22) 4.24 (3.24, 5.55) 0.06
   Former smokers 4.34 (3.91, 4.81) 4.16 (3.60, 4.80) 4.52 (4.20, 4.87) 4.49 (4.05, 4.98) 0.49
   Current smokers 5.74 (5.08, 6.48) 5.78 (5.34, 6.27) 6.09 (5.81, 6.39) 6.39 (5.86, 6.96) 0.12
Total estradiol, pg/mL      
   Never smokers 31.7 (29.0, 34.6) 34.0 (31.4, 36.7) 34.3 (30.8, 38.2) 30.2 (23.6, 38.7) 0.97
   Former smokers 33.0 (30.1, 36.2) 33.0 (31.0, 35.0) 32.6 (30.8, 34.4) 33.5 (31.0, 36.2) 0.73
   Current smokers 40.2 (36.3, 44.5) 39.1 (37.0, 41.3) 44.3 (42.3, 46.5) 43.2 (40.7, 45.8) 0.26
SHBG, nmol/L      
   Never smokers 32.4 (29.6, 35.3) 32.6 (29.8, 35.6) 31.3 (27.1, 36.1) 32.5 (26.8, 39.3) 0.88
   Former smokers 36.2 (30.6, 42.8) 32.2 (29.7, 34.8) 37.3 (33.5, 41.7) 37.8 (34.1, 41.8) 0.28
   Current smokers 39.3 (34.7, 44.5) 36.3 (31.7, 41.6) 33.7 (31.0, 36.6) 37.6 (33.2, 42.7) 0.71
Androstanediol glucuronide, ng/mL      
   Never smokers 12.9 (12.0, 13.8) 11.3 (9.9, 13.0) 11.7 (9.7, 14.0) 13.1 (11.0, 15.7) 0.80
   Former smokers 14.0 (11.8, 16.7) 11.8 (10.3, 13.6) 10.5 (9.7, 11.3) 11.7 (9.6, 14.4) 0.64
   Current smokers 12.1 (9.8, 14.9) 12.5 (10.0, 15.4) 10.8 (8.7, 13.3) 11.0 (9.3, 12.9) 0.53
Estimated free testosterone, ng/mL      
   Never smokers 0.102 (0.094, 0.111) 0.099 (0.088, 0.111) 0.084 (0.063, 0.112) 0.085 (0.064, 0.114) 0.14
   Former smokers 0.083 (0.075, 0.091) 0.084 (0.071, 0.099) 0.086 (0.079, 0.093) 0.084 (0.076, 0.093) 0.97
   Current smokers 0.109 (0.097, 0.123) 0.114 (0.106, 0.123) 0.129 (0.121, 0.137) 0.126 (0.117, 0.136) 0.09
Estimated free estradiol, pg/mL      
   Never smokers 0.81 (0.73, 0.90) 0.86 (0.79, 0.94) 0.89 (0.78, 1.00) 0.77 (0.60, 1.00) 0.92
   Former smokers 0.84 (0.75, 0.94) 0.86 (0.80, 0.92) 0.82 (0.78, 0.87) 0.84 (0.77, 0.91) 0.87
   Current smokers 1.00 (0.90, 1.10) 0.99 (0.92, 1.05) 1.16 (1.09, 1.23) 1.09 (1.01, 1.17) 0.39
Estradiol*1000/total testosterone      
   Never smokers 6.67 (6.06, 7.35) 7.37 (6.08, 8.93) 8.81 (6.75, 11.50) 7.54 (6.20, 9.17) 0.16
   Former smokers 8.08 (6.96, 9.37) 8.41 (7.36, 9.60) 7.62 (7.02, 8.28) 7.89 (7.10, 8.77) 0.71
   Current smokers 7.41 (6.75, 8.14) 7.15 (6.62, 7.72) 7.71 (7.25, 8.19) 7.16 (6.58, 7.79) 0.51
Total testosterone/SHBG      
   Never smokers 0.539 (0.490, 0.593) 0.520 (0.470, 0.575) 0.457 (0.337, 0.619) 0.453 (0.332, 0.619) 0.25
   Former smokers 0.416 (0.364, 0.474) 0.448 (0.382, 0.525) 0.420 (0.380, 0.464) 0.412 (0.370, 0.459) 0.59
   Current smokers 0.507 (0.456, 0.563) 0.552 (0.491, 0.621) 0.628 (0.575, 0.685) 0.588 (0.535, 0.646) 0.31
Estradiol*1000/SHBG      
   Never smokers 3.60 (3.09, 4.19) 3.83 (3.37, 4.36) 4.03 (3.29, 4.93) 3.42 (2.62, 4.45) 0.88
   Former smokers 3.35 (2.70, 4.15) 3.77 (3.37, 4.20) 3.20 (2.90, 3.53) 3.25 (2.86, 3.70) 0.52
   Current smokers 3.75 (3.30, 4.27) 3.95 (3.44, 4.53) 4.84 (4.35, 5.38) 4.22 (3.66, 4.86) 0.72
  1. *Adjusted for age (continuous) and race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican-American, and other), serum cotinine (continuous), household income (< $20,000 and ≥ $20,000), physical activity (none, 1–2, and ≥ 3 times a week), alcohol consumption (< 12 and ≥ 12 drinks in the past year), percent body fat (continuous), blood lead (log-transformed, continuous), and serum selenium (continuous)