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Table 2 Adjusted geometric means (95% confidence interval) by quartile of creatinine corrected urinary cadmium

From: The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men

  Quartile 1 < 0.18 μg/g Quartile 2 0.18–0.33 μg/g Quartile 3 0.34–0.62 μg/g Quartile 4 ≥ 0.63 μg/g p-trend
Total testosterone, ng/mL      
   Age and race-ethnicity adjusted 4.69 (4.40, 4.99) 4.85 (4.45, 5.27) 5.13 (4.78, 5.52) 5.64 (5.27, 6.04) < 0.001
   Multivariable model 1† 5.06 (4.78, 5.36) 5.06 (4.71, 5.44) 5.03 (4.68, 5.41) 5.09 (4.69, 5.53) 0.88
   Multivariable model 2‡ 5.10 (4.85, 5.35) 5.07 (4.72, 5.45) 5.00 (4.67, 5.35) 5.08 (4.68, 5.51) 0.99
Total estradiol, pg/mL      
   Age and race-ethnicity adjusted 32.1 (29.6, 34.8) 34.6 (33.1, 36.1) 37.5 (35.8, 39.2) 39.8 (37.9, 41.8) < 0.001
   Multivariable model 1† 34.4 (32.2, 36.8) 36.1 (34.6, 37.7) 36.9 (35.2, 38.6) 36.2 (33.8, 38.7) 0.42
   Multivariable model 2‡ 34.3 (32.3, 36.4) 36.0 (34.5, 37.6) 37.1 (35.4, 38.8) 36.1 (33.7, 38.8) 0.41
SHBG, nmol/L      
   Age and race-ethnicity adjusted 34.2 (31.4, 37.2) 33.1 (30.9, 35.4) 34.6 (32.6, 36.7) 37.5 (34.6, 40.7) 0.009
   Multivariable model 1† 35.2 (32.1, 38.6) 33.9 (31.6, 36.3) 34.4 (32.3, 36.7) 35.6 (32.7, 38.8) 0.57
   Multivariable model 2‡ 35.5 (32.7, 38.5) 34.0 (31.7, 36.4) 34.3 (32.4, 36.3) 35.4 (32.5, 38.5) 0.71
Androstanediol glucuronide, ng/mL      
   Age and race-ethnicity adjusted 13.0 (12.2, 13.8) 11.8 (10.9, 12.9) 10.9 (9.5, 12.5) 11.2 (9.7, 13.0) 0.23
   Multivariable model 1† 12.9 (12.1, 13.8) 11.8 (10.8, 12.9) 10.9 (9.5, 12.5) 11.3 (9.8, 13.1) 0.33
   Multivariable model 2‡ 12.9 (12.1, 13.7) 11.7 (10.8, 12.8) 10.9 (9.5, 12.5) 11.4 (9.8, 13.2) 0.40
Estimated free testosterone, ng/mL      
   Age and race-ethnicity adjusted 0.092 (0.087, 0.097) 0.098 (0.091, 0.105) 0.104 (0.095, 0.113) 0.109 (0.102, 0.118) < 0.001
   Multivariable model 1† 0.099 (0.094, 0.105) 0.102 (0.095, 0.108) 0.101 (0.093, 0.111) 0.100 (0.091, 0.109) 0.89
   Multivariable model 2‡ 0.100 (0.094, 0.105) 0.102 (0.095, 0.109) 0.101 (0.092, 0.110) 0.100 (0.090, 0.110) 0.85
Estimated free estradiol, pg/mL      
   Age and race-ethnicity adjusted 0.81 (0.75, 0.89) 0.89 (0.84, 0.93) 0.96 (0.91, 1.02) 1.00 (0.94, 1.07) < 0.001
   Multivariable model 1† 0.87 (0.81, 0.94) 0.92 (0.87, 0.97) 0.95 (0.90, 1.00) 0.91 (0.84, 0.99) 0.69
   Multivariable model 2‡ 0.87 (0.81, 0.93) 0.92 (0.87, 0.97) 0.95 (0.90, 1.01) 0.91 (0.83, 1.00) 0.69
Estradiol*1000/total testosterone      
   Age and race-ethnicity adjusted 7.24 (6.57, 7.99) 7.56 (6.81, 8.39) 7.74 (7.18, 8.34) 7.47 (6.98, 8.00) 0.80
   Multivariable model 1† 7.20 (6.55, 7.91) 7.55 (6.83, 8.34) 7.75 (7.14, 8.42) 7.52 (6.90, 8.20) 0.70
   Multivariable model 2‡ 7.12 (6.60, 7.69) 7.52 (6.80, 8.31) 7.85 (7.23, 8.53) 7.54 (6.86, 8.28) 0.61
Total testosterone/SHBG      
   Age and race-ethnicity adjusted 0.476 (0.445, 0.510) 0.508 (0.475, 0.543) 0.514 (0.469, 0.564) 0.522 (0.480, 0.566) 0.05
   Multivariable model 1† 0.498 (0.461, 0.538) 0.518 (0.488, 0.551) 0.507 (0.460, 0.558) 0.495 (0.444, 0.553) 0.71
   Multivariable model 2‡ 0.498 (0.461, 0.538) 0.518 (0.485, 0.554) 0.505 (0.458, 0.555) 0.497 (0.442, 0.559) 0.79
Estradiol*1000/SHBG      
   Age and race-ethnicity adjusted 3.45 (3.03, 3.92) 3.84 (3.52, 4.20) 3.98 (3.66, 4.32) 3.90 (3.49, 4.35) 0.15
   Multivariable model 1† 3.59 (3.14, 4.09) 3.91 (3.56, 4.30) 3.93 (3.60, 4.28) 3.72 (3.29, 4.22) 0.98
   Multivariable model 2‡ 3.55 (3.16, 3.99) 3.90 (3.55, 4.28) 3.97 (3.66, 4.30) 3.75 (3.29, 4.27) 0.87
  1. SHBG = Sex hormone-binding globulin
  2. †Adjusted for age (continuous) and race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican-American, and other), smoking status (never, former, and current), and serum cotinine (continuous)
  3. ‡Adjusted for variables in model 1 and household income (< $20,000 and ≥ $20,000), physical activity (none, 1–2, and ≥ 3 times a week), alcohol consumption (< 12 and ≥ 12 drinks in the past year), percent body fat (continuous), blood lead (log-transformed, continuous), and serum selenium (continuous)