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Table 1 Age and race-ethnicity adjusted participant characteristics* by quartile of creatinine corrected urinary cadmium

From: The association of urinary cadmium with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a general population sample of US adult men

  Quartile 1 < 0.18 μg/g Quartile 2 0.18–0.33 μg/g Quartile 3 0.34–0.62 μg/g Quartile 4 ≥ 0.63 μg/g p-trend
Age, years 31.7 (0.8) 37.1 (0.7) 44.6 (1.3) 54.3 (1.2) < 0.001
Non-Hispanic white, % 83.9 (2.9) 80.3 (3.4) 74.5 (5.6) 74.3 (5.2) 0.07
Non-Hispanic black, % 6.5 (1.5) 10.9 (2.2) 8.1 (1.1) 11.1 (1.7) 0.03
Mexican-American, % 4.2 (1.0) 5.6 (1.0) 4.5 (0.9) 4.7 (0.8) 0.99
Current smokers, % 11.2 (2.1) 20.4 (3.7) 42.9 (4.2) 73.6 (2.4) < 0.001
Former smokers, % 29.3 (4.3) 33.9 (4.2) 35.8 (3.7) 25.7 (3.2) 0.06
Serum cotinine, ng/mL 26.4 (8.4) 39.6 (8.4) 107.2 (12.9) 231.0 (12.1) < 0.001
Low income, % 24.1 (3.0) 20.4 (2.7) 31.0 (2.9) 42.1 (4.0) < 0.001
Consume alcohol, % 75.6 (4.1) 71.5 (3.4) 74.8 (3.2) 72.7 (3.8) 0.76
No exercise, % 40.6 (6.1) 30.1 (3.5) 41.0 (4.4) 55.2 (4.2) 0.005
Percent body fat, mean percent 25.8 (0.5) 26.1 (0.5) 25.4 (0.6) 24.7 (0.5) 0.05
Blood lead, μg/dL† 3.2 (2.8, 3.6) 3.6 (3.2, 4.0) 4.3 (3.9, 4.8) 5.5 (4.9, 6.3) < 0.001
Serum selenium, ng/mL 126.5 (2.7) 126.7 (1.1) 127.3 (1.3) 121.7 (1.3) 0.05
  1. *Mean or percentage (standard error)
  2. †Geometric mean (95% confidence interval)