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Table 4 Odds ratios for being a smoker in the six months before the first child was conceived, with 95% confidence intervals, for different socio-economic statuses and the partner's smoking status

From: An investigation of the smoking behaviours of parents before, during and after the birth of their children in Taiwan

  Mothers Fathers
  Odds ratio 95% CI Odds ratio 95% CI
Educational attainment (reference group: college or above)
   Elementary school or below 3.36** (1.52 7.40) 2.27** (1.87 2.76)
   High school 6.29** (2.64 14.96) 3.01** (2.30 3.94)
Occupation (reference group: high position)
   Middle position 1.92 (0.54 6.81) 1.46** (1.19 1.79)
   Low position 5.18* (1.49 18.03) 1.43** (1.11 1.85)
Average monthly family income (reference group: NT$70,000 or above)
   <= 29,999 0.61 (0.34 1.08) 1.22 (0.99 1.52)
   30,000 – 49,999 0.42** (0.23 0.76) 1.27* (1.01 1.60)
   50,000 – 69,999 0.54 (0.26 1.11) 1.30 (0.93 1.82)
Partner's smoking status before the conception of the first child (reference group: non-smoker)
   Smoker 6.40** (3.31 12.37) 5.94 ** (3.02 11.67)
Number of observations 2,837   2,772  
Model Significance: Wald χ2(13) 131.80**   257.95**  
  1. ** p < 0.01; * p < 0.05.
  2. Note: In the models, the residential region and the urbanization level of residential district were also controlled for.