Skip to main content

Table 4 Adjusted risk ratios by service branch using Cox proportional hazards modeling for postwar all-cause hospitalization among military personnel who served in the 1991 Gulf War and remained on active duty, FY 1995–2004

From: The long-term hospitalization experience following military service in the 1991 Gulf War among veterans remaining on active duty, 1994–2004

  Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps
Covariate RR* 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI
Gender         
Female 1.70 (1.63, 1.77) 1.94 (1.78, 2.11) 1.83 (1.67, 2.01) 2.23 (1.89, 2.64)
Male Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Age (years)         
23–26 1.02 (0.98, 1.07) 1.02 (0.95, 1.10) 1.01 (0.91, 1.11) 1.24 (1.13, 1.37)
27–31 1.13 (1.08, 1.18) 1.13 (1.05, 1.21) 1.15 (1.04, 1.26) 1.49 (1.35, 1.65)
32–61 1.51 (1.44, 1.58) 1.51 (1.41, 1.63) 1.35 (1.21, 1.50) 2.02 (1.82, 2.24)
16–22 Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Marital status         
Married 1.06 (1.02, 1.10) 1.15 (1.09, 1.21) 1.10 (1.02, 1.18) 1.14 (1.06, 1.23)
Other Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Race         
Black 0.92 (0.89, 0.95) 0.98 (0.92, 1.03) 1.00 (0.92, 1.09) 0.98 (0.91, 1.06)
Other 0.91 (0.87, 0.97) 0.71 (0.65, 0.78) 0.83 (0.70, 0.97) 0.91 (0.80, 1.04)
White Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Pay grade         
Enlisted 0.63 (0.60, 0.66) 0.70 (0.64, 0.75) 0.86 (0.78, 0.94) 0.78 (0.71, 0.86)
Officer Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
War-related exposures         
   Anthrax/botulinum immunization§         
Yes 1.04 (0.88, 1.22)    0.91 (0.65, 1.28)   
No Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
   Exposed to Khamisiyah March 10–12, 1991#         
Yes (at risk and exposed) 1.03 (0.94, 1.12)    1.01 (0.89, 1.14)   
No (at risk and not exposed) 0.99 (0.91, 1.08)    1.06 (0.83, 1.35)   
Never at risk Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
   Exposed to oil well fire 1991         
Yes 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) 0.97 (0.92, 1.02) 0.96 (0.90, 1.03) 1.04 (0.96, 1.13)
No Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
   In-theater hospitalization         
Yes 1.60 (1.49, 1.71) 1.71 (1.41, 2.07) 1.50 (1.31, 1.73) 1.78 (1.48, 2.14)
No Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
   In theater during combat period         
Yes 0.94 (0.86, 1.03) 1.07 (1.02, 1.13) 0.96 (0.84, 1.09) 0.99 (0.90, 1.09)
No Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
   Occupation         
Combat specialists 1.01 (0.97, 1.04) 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) 0.82 (0.74, 0.92) 0.92 (0.86, 0.99)
Other Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
  1. FY: Fiscal year (October 1 through September 30).
  2. * RR: risk ratio; adjusted for all other covariates in the model.
  3. CI: Confidence interval.
  4. Other: heterogeneous group, including Asian American, Hispanic, and Native American, among others.
  5. § Immunizations data not complete.
  6. # Only Army and Air Force data available for Khamisiyah munitions demolition exposure.