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Table 1 Risk of maternal deaths by demographic and pregnancy-related factors among women, rural Tanzania, 1995–96

From: Risk factors for maternal death in the highlands of rural northern Tanzania: a case-control study

Variable ANC attendees a Maternal deaths Cases 1 b OR c (95%CI) Maternal deaths Cases 2 d OR c (95%CI)
Total e 135 45   31  
Age      
   15–24 years 65 14 1.0 9 1.0
   25–34 years 56 18 1.5 (0.7–3.3) 12 1.6 (0.6–4.0)
   35–49 years 14 12 4.0 (1.5–10.6) 9 4.1 (1.3–12.4)
Ward groups f      
   1 54 4 1.0 3 1.0
   2 6 7 18.0 (2.6–123) 6 17.2 (2.1–143)
   3 27 11 1.4 (0.3–6.9) 6 1.8 (0.3–10.8)
   4 38 15 2.8 (0.7–11.7) 13 3.3 (0.6–17.1)
   5 5 5 23.1 (2.0–271) 1 30.1 (1.1- 823)
   6 5 3 7.6 (0.8–76.7) 2 4.5 (0.3–69.6)
Woman's ethnic affiliation      
   Iraqw 111 31 1.0 23 1.0
   Datoga 22 8 1.3 (0.5–3.3) 5 1.2 (0.4–3.7)
   Other 2 6 13.6 (2.5–75.0) 3 7.3 (1.1–50.0)
Husband's ethnic affiliation      
   Iraqw 95 29 1.0 21 1.0
   Datoga 25 9 1.3 (0.5–3.1) 8 1.6 (0.6–4.2)
   Other 4 2 2.3 (0.4–13.7) 1 1.5 (0.2–14.4)
Woman's religious affiliation      
   Christian 104 27 1.0 19 1.0
   Traditional/other 30 18 2.1 (1.0–4.5) 12 2.0 (0.8–4.9)
Husband's religious affiliation      
   Christian 84 18 1.0 11 1.0
   Traditional/other 38 22 2.6 (1.2–5.7) 19 3.6 (1.5–8.7)
Woman's education      
   1–7 years school 96 24 1.0 18 1.0
   No school 38 15 1.2 (0.5–2.6) 12 1.3 (0.5–3.1)
Husband's education      
   1–7 years school 92 20 1.0 16 1.0
   No school 32 17 2.2 (1.0–5.0) 12 2.0 (0.8–5.1)
Parity      
   Pregnancy 1 36 10 1.5 (0.6–3.9) 8 1.9 (0.6–5.7)
   Pregnancy 2–4 56 16 1.0 10 1.0
   Pregnancy 5–15 43 17 0.5 (0.2–1.5) 13 0.7 (0.2–2.3)
Previous abortions      
   No abortions 115 41 1.0 30 1.0
   1–3 abortions 20 2 0.2 (0.04–1.0) 1 0.2 (0.02–1.2)
Previous stillbirths      
   No stillbirths 122 38 1.0 26 1.0
   1–2 stillbirths 13 5 1.1 (0.4–3.3) 5 1.7 (0.5–5.3)
Previous perinatal deaths      
   No perinatal deaths 110 34 1.0 24 1.0
   1–3 perinatal deaths 25 9 0.9 (0.4–2.3) 7 1.2 (0.4–3.1)
  1. a Antenatal clinic attendees (control group)
  2. b Cases 1 – all maternal deaths found in the study
  3. c Adjusted for age and ward (place of residence)
  4. d Cases 2- all maternal deaths of women who attended any antenatal clinic during last pregnancy
  5. e There were various numbers of missing cases and controls in the different groups
  6. f Wards grouped according to location: 1 = Haydom (reference), 2 = Dongobesh+Tumati+Bashay; 3 = Basotu+Basodesh; 4 = Maghang+Maretadu; 5 = Laghanga+Getanwas+Hirbadaw; 6 = Yaeda Chini.