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Table 3 Association of demographic and socioeconomic variables with tobacco use (n = 2018)

From: Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Variable (Reference Group) O.R (95% CI) Unadjusted Unadjusted (p-value) O.R (95% CI) Adjusted * Adjusted (p-value)
Residence     
   Urban 1.00   1.00  
   Rural 1.92(1.5 2.4) <0.001 1.49 (1.1 2.0) 0.01
Gender     
   Female 1.00   1.00  
   Male 9.80 (7.2 13.3) <0.001 12.6 (8.8 18.0) <0.001
Age groups (years)     
   <30 1.0   1.00  
   30–39 0.97 (0.6 1.4) 0.84 0.99 (0.6 1.5) 0.97
   40–49 1.1 (0.7 1.6) 0.58 0.87 (0.5 1.4) 0.55
   50–59 2.2 (1.5 3.2) <0.001 1.3 (0.8 1.9) 0.20
   >60 2.1 (1.4 3.3) 0.001 0.8 (0.5 1.4) 0.45
Income (Rupees)     
   <2000 1.0   1.0  
   2000–3499 0.9 (0.5 1.7) 0.76 0.9 (0.4 2.2) 0.99
   3500–4999 0.8 (0.4 1.6) 0.59 0.9 (0.4 2.0) 0.80
   5000–8999 0.7 (0.4 1.4) 0.36 0.9 (0.4 2.2) 0.94
   >9000 0.6 (0.3 1.1) 0.12 1.0 (0.5 2.4) 0.87
Education     
   None 1.00   1.00  
   Primary 1.54 (1.1 2.2) 0.01 0.89 (0.6 1.3) 0.51
   Middle 1.62 (1.1 2.3) 0.008 0.57 (0.4 0.9) 0.02
   Matric 0.92 (0.6 1.3) 0.65 0.38 (0.2 0.6) <0.001
   FA/FSc 0.88 (0.5 1.4) 0.59 0.50 (0.3 0.8) 0.01
   Graduate & above 0.33 (0.2 0.7) 0.002 0.16 (0.1 0.3) <0.001
  95% CI = 95% Confidence Interval
  1. *Adjusted for age groups, gender, rural/urban residence, family income and educational level