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Table 5 Biomarker based prevalence of tobacco exposure at birth and at 4 years (N = 246), according to the previously established intervals.

From: A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

Level of exposure (ng/mL) Cord blood cotinine n (%) Urinary cotinine at 4 years n (%)
Non exposure <1 25 (10.2) 4 (1.6)
Low exposure 1–14 135 (54.9) 157 (63.8)
Medium exposure 14–50 23 (9.3) 66 (26.8)
High exposure 50–100 21 (8.5) 16 (6.5)
Very high exposure >100 42 (17.1) 3 (1.2)
  1. Chi-square p < 0.001. Gamma Coef 0.770