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Table 4 Prevalence of environmental tobacco exposure: maternal report versus biomarker-based at birth and at 4 years of age

From: A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

  At delivery N = 415 4th year N = 306 p-value*
ETS exposure:    
By questionnaire:    
Active maternal smoking (NDI >0) (%) 144 (34.7) 148 (48.4) <0.001
Passive exposure(DEN >0) (%) 175 (42.2) (mother DEN) 95 (31.0) (child DEN) <0.01
By biomarker: Umbilical cord blood Child Urine  
   0 – 1 ng/mL (%) (no exposure) 45 (10.8) 5 (2.0) <0.001
   1 – 14 ng/mL (%) (low) 228 (55.0) 186 (60.4) 0.02
   >14 ng/mL (%) (medium and high) 142 (34.2) 115 (37.6) 0.35
  1. ETS: environmental tobacco smoke; NDI: nicotine daily intake; DEN: daily exposure to nicotine