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Table 3 Cotinine levels (ng/mL) in children's urine and maternal self-reported smoking habit at 4 years

From: A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

Maternal self-reported smoking habit at 4 years Urinary cotinine in children at 4 years (ng/mL)
  N Median Adjusted GM CI 95%
NENS 102 4.65 4.53 (3.71–5.48)
ENS 62 6.45 7.10* (5.61–8.99)
DEN child (Tertiles)     
   ≤ 2 39 (62.9%) 5.40 6.38 (4.98–8.18)
   2–4 15 (24.2%) 6.50 7.23 (4.83–10.81)
   >4 8 (12.9%) 10.80 11.38 (6.55–19.77)
S 142 19.15 19.68* (16.83–23.01)
NDI mother (Tertiles)     
   ≤ 3.6 15 (10.6%) 9.90 9.75 (6.14–15.49)
   3.6–9 48 (33.8%) 13.45 12.45 (9.59–16.14)
   >9 79 (55.6%) 28.50 30.41*** (24.89–37.24)
  1. * p-value < 0.05 in relation to NENS
  2. *** p-value < 0.001 in relation to the first tertile of maternal NDI
  3. GM: geometric mean; CI: confidence interval; NENS: non exposed-non smoker; ENS: exposed-non smoker; S: smoker; NDI:nicotine daily intake; DEN: daily exposure to nicotine.