24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years."/>
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Table 6 Two different validation methods of smoking history by measuring carbon monoxide (CO)/ppm in the breath of randomly selected Polish immigrants (n = 90)

From: Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin

1) Inter-quartile Range of CO/ppm Heavy smokers Light smokers p = 0.001
  No % No %  
2–9 3 8.8 20 35.7  
10–22 12 35.3 24 42.9  
23–63 19 55.9 12 21.4  
2) Correlation between CO levels in ppm and the number of cigarettes smoked
r = 0.64 p < 0.0001