24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years."/>
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Table 4 Significant predictors of current smokers among the Polish community in Dublin (backward elimination logistic regression modeling)

From: Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin

Variables Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) 95% Confidence Intervals (CI)  
Education    p < 0.0001
   Graduates/Higher Reference   
   Secondary 2.13 1.56–2.91  
   Primary 3.76 2.46–5.74  
Employment    p = 0.01
   Unemployed Reference   
   Employed 2.89 1.25–6.69  
Duration of stay    p = 0.002
   >2 years Reference   
   1–2 years 0.97 0.68–1.38  
   <1 year 0.61 0.45–0.83