24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years."/>
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Table 3 Demographic and socio-economic characteristics between currently smoking and currently not smoking Polish immigrants (n = 1,375)

From: Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin

Variables Currently smoking (n = 645) Currently not smoking (n = 730) Pearson χ2
  No % No %  
Gender (n = 1,295)      p = 0.0002
   Male 421 51.4 398 48.6  
   Female 193 40.5 283 59.5  
Age (n = 1,319)      p = 0.007
   <19 years 19 33.3 38 66.7  
   19–40 years 395 45.6 472 54.4  
   >40 years 208 52.7 187 47.3  
Marital status (n = 1,287)      p = 0.03
   Not single 213 50.8 206 49.2  
   Single 385 44.4 483 55.6  
Education (n = 1,369)      p < 0.0001
   Primary 131 59.0 91 41.0  
   Secondary 379 48.8 397 51.2  
   Graduates/Higher 132 35.6 239 64.4  
Employment (n = 1,271)      p = 0.047
   Employed 541 48.6 573 51.4  
   Unemployed 63 40.1 94 59.9  
Salary (n = 1,178)      p = 0.03
   <€20,000 119 41.2 170 58.2  
   €20–39,999 401 50.1 400 49.9  
   >=€40,000 44 50.0 44 50.0  
Duration of stay (n = 1,356)      p < 0.0001
   <1 year 183 38.9 287 61.1  
   1–2 years 106 48.2 114 51.8  
   >2 years 345 51.8 321 48.2  
Year of arrivals (n = 1,375)      p = 0.0007
   2006 and earlier 407 50.8 395 49.2  
   2007 238 41.5 335 58.5