24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years."/>
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Table 2 Basic characteristics of the Polish immigrants (n = 1,545)

From: Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin

Variables No %
Gender (n = 1,451)   
   Male 904 62.3
   Female 547 37.7
Age (n = 1,478)   
   <19 years 68 4.6
   19–40 years 979 66.2
   >40 years 431 29.2
Marital status (n = 1,439)   
   Not single 981 68.2
   Single 458 31.8
Education (n = 1,532)   
   Primary 239 15.6
   Secondary 878 57.3
   Graduates/Higher 415 27.1
Employment (n = 1,423)   
   Employed 1,237 86.9
   Unemployed 186 13.1
Salary (n = 1,313)   
   <€20,000 339 25.8
   €20–39,999 875 66.7
   >=€40,000 99 7.5
Duration of stay (n = 1,517)   
   <1 year 540 35.6
   1–2 years 238 15.7
   >2 years 739 48.7
Year of arrivals (n = 1,545)   
   2006 and earlier 892 57.7
   2007 653 42.3
Smoking status (n = 1,375)   
   Never Smokers 576 41.9
   Former Smokers 154 11.2
   Current Smokers 645 46.9