24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Polish immigrants' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years."/>
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Table 1 Adjusted smoking prevalence estimates (%) in the Polish immigrants (Pole survey) and in the general Irish population in Dublin (OTC survey), July–August 2007

From: Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin

  POLE Survey (n = 1,375) %
(95% CI)
OTC Survey (n = 484) %
(95% CI)
't' test (mean difference)
Overall (age-sex adjusted) 47.6 (47.3; 48.0) 27.8 (27.2; 28.4) p < 0.001
Gender (age-adjusted)    
   Males 50.9 (50.5; 51.3) 27.4 (26.5; 28.2) p < 0.001
   Females 39.8 (39.5; 40.2) 28.3 (27.6; 29.0) p < 0.001
<19 year olds    
   Males 20.0 (6.0; 66.8) 5.9 (0.6; 61.3) p < 0.001
   Females 8.3 (0.9; 77.7) 12.5 (2.4; 64.7) p < 0.001
19–40 year olds    
   Males 51.6 (35.6; 74.8) 42.5 (18.1; 99.9) p < 0.001
   Females 40.6 (20.7; 79.7) 32.4 (15.6; 67.2) p < 0.001
>40 year olds    
   Males 50.0 (41.8; 59.8) 16.4 (11.0; 24.5) p < 0.001
   Females 41.1 (29.7; 57.2) 26.9 (19.7; 36.7) p < 0.001