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Table 3 Age and multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR, 95% CI) of the actual number of prevalent chronic diseases by educational level among men and women aged 50 to 75 years in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort, applying multinomial logistic regression models (Reference category: highest educational level)

From: The impact of education on risk factors and the occurrence of multimorbidity in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

  Men Women
Educational Level Middle Low   Middle Low
  N OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI N OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI
Age-adjusted           
Morbidity 1           
0 657 1     576 1    
1 1439 1.35 1.01–1.81 1.08 0.89–1.32 1249 1.31 1.00–1.71 1.41 1.11–1.80
2 1595 1.51 1.14–2.02 1.18 0.97–1.44 1458 1.22 0.94–1.59 1.50 1.19–1.91
3 1246 1.65 1.22–2.23 1.44 1.16–1.77 1124 1.29 0.98–1.71 1.64 1.28–2.11
4 800 1.69 1.21–2.36 1.72 1.37–2.17 634 1.67 1.22–2.31 1.85 1.38–2.48
5 374 2.00 1.30–3.09 2.55 1.88–3.45 335 1.77 1.16–2.68 2.33 1.61–3.39
≥ 6 293 1.96 1.19–3.23 3.08 2.18–4.33 218 1.54 0.89–2.66 3.31 2.08–5.27
P for trend   <0.001   0.002    0.015   0.003  
Multivariate-adjusted #           
Morbidity 1           
0 647 1     566 1    
1 1392 1.32 0.98–1.78 1.02 0.82–1.27 1182 1.26 0.96–1.66 1.31 1.01–1.71
2 1511 1.44 1.07–1.93 1.11 0.89–1.38 1344 1.17 0.89–1.53 1.30 1.00–1.68
3 1142 1.43 1.04–1.95 1.19 0.94–1.49 1000 1.11 0.82–1.48 1.31 1.00–1.73
4 744 1.50 1.06–2.12 1.39 1.07–1.79 551 1.50 1.06–2.12 1.30 0.94–1.81
5 353 1.64 1.04–2.57 1.76 1.26–2.45 285 1.47 0.94–2.32 1.60 1.05–2.43
≥ 6 253 1.44 0.83–2.49 2.24 1.52–3.29 186 1.47 0.78–2.76 2.53 1.45–4.41
P for trend   0.039   0.003    0.021   0.039  
Age-adjusted           
Metabolic diseases 2           
0 1504 1     1606 1    
1 2480 1.36 1.11–1.66 1.10 0.96–1.27 2562 1.28 1.08–1.53 1.39 1.19–1.63
2 2121 1.53 1.24–1.88 1.41 1.22–1.63 1749 1.43 1.17–1.75 1.85 1.55–2.22
3/4 1054 1.81 1.39–2.36 2.40 1.99–2.89 454 1.72 1.18–2.50 3.08 2.23–4.26
P for trend   0.009   0.089    0.007   0.042  
Multivariate-adjusted #           
Metabolic diseases 2           
0 1422 1     1483 1    
1 2334 1.30 1.06–1.61 0.99 0.85–1.16 2329 1.19 0.99–1.43 1.24 1.04–1.48
2 2004 1.36 1.09–1.69 1.16 0.98–1.37 1602 1.29 1.04–1.60 1.38 1.13–1.69
3/4 999 1.51 1.14–2.02 1.62 1.31–2.00 402 1.40 0.93–2.12 1.76 1.21–2.55
P for trend   0.043   0.113    0.012   0.018  
  1. # adjusted for smoking status, BMI (continuous; kg/m2), fruit intake (continuous; g/day), vegetable intake (continuous; g/day), alcohol consumption (continuous; g/day), age (continuous; years), combined total physical activity index (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active)
  2. 1Number of the prevalent chronic conditions mentioned in table 1
  3. 2Number of prevalent metabolic diseases, including hyperuricemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia