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Table 2 Drug use and sexual behaviors of 1415 drug users by illicit methadone (IM) use and injection status

From: Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study

  Non-injection drug users Injection drug users
  Total Current IM use No current IM use   Total Current IM use No current IM use  
  n = 955 n = 113 n = 842   n = 460 n = 157 n = 303  
  n(%) d n(%) n(%) p-value a n(%) d n(%) n(%) p-value a
Lifetime drug use
Polysubstance use e 831 (87.0) 111 (98.2) 720 (85.5) < 0.001 455 (98.9) 155 (98.7) 300 (99.1) 0.779b
Crack 722 (75.6) 91 (80.5) 631 (74.9) 0.194 383 (83.3) 136 (86.6) 247 (81.5) 0.164
Cocaine 902 (94.5) 107 (94.7) 795 (94.4) 0.906 451 (98.0) 154 (98.1) 297 (98.0) 0.959
Heroin 631 (66.1) 111 (98.2) 520 (61.8) < 0.001 458 (99.6) 157 (100.0) 301 (99.3) 0.549b
Current drug use (in last 6 months)
Crack
None 226 (23.7) 22 (19.5) 204 (24.2) 0.264 84 (18.3) 21 (13.4) 63 (20.8) 0.051
Less than daily 374 (39.2) 50 (44.2) 324 (38.5) 0.238 189 (41.1) 72 (45.9) 117 (38.6) 0.134
Daily 236 (24.7) 25 (22.1) 211 (25.1) 0.497 69 (15.0) 25 (15.9) 44 (14.5) 0.690
Cocaine
None 53 (5.5) 6 (5.3) 47 (5.6) 0.906 27 (5.9) 7 (4.5) 20 (6.6) 0.354
Less than daily 613 (64.2) 72 (63.7) 541 (64.3) 0.911 252 (54.8) 87 (55.4) 165 (54.5) 0.845
Daily 91 (9.5) 14 (12.4) 77 (9.1) 0.270 136 (29.6) 58 (36.9) 78 (25.7) 0.013
Heroin
None 320 (33.5) 1 (0.9) 319 (37.9) < 0.001 4 (0.9) 0 (0) 4 (1.3) 1.000b
Less than daily 354 (37.1) 59 (52.2) 295 (35.0) < 0.001 190 (41.3) 48 (30.6) 142 (46.9) 0.001
Daily 167 (17.5) 51 (45.1) 116 (13.8) < 0.001 303 (65.9) 131 (83.4) 172 (56.8) < 0.001
Methamphetamine
None 892 (93.4) 101 (89.4) 791 (93.9) 0.067 415 (90.2) 137 (87.3) 278 (91.7) 0.098
Less than daily 16 (1.7) 5 (4.4) 11 (1.3) 0.030b 12 (2.6) 7 (4.5) 5 (1.7) 0.073b
Daily 1 (0.1) 0 (0) 1 (0.1) 1.000b 3 (0.7) 0 (0) 3 (1.0) 1.000b
Marijuana
None 163 (17.1) 19 (16.8) 144 (17.1) 0.922 104 (22.6) 23 (14.6) 81 (26.7) 0.003
Less than daily 342 (35.8) 47 (41.6) 295 (35.0) 0.184 187 (40.7) 72 (45.9) 115 (38.0) 0.114
Daily 381 (39.9) 40 (35.4) 341 (40.5) 0.281 148 (32.2) 56 (35.7) 92 (30.4) 0.268
Alcohol
None 133 (13.9) 16 (14.2) 117 (13.9) 0.939 122 (26.5) 37 (23.6) 85 (28.1) 0.301
Less than daily 624 (65.3) 76 (67.3) 548 (65.1) 0.649 294 (63.9) 104 (66.2) 190 (62.7) 0.454
Daily 195 (20.4) 21 (18.6) 174 (20.7) 0.606 44 (9.6) 16 (10.2) 28 (9.2) 0.743
Drug dependence, past year
Heroin dependence 381 (39.9) 97 (85.8) 284 (33.7) < 0.001 421 (91.5) 156 (99.4) 265 (87.5) < 0.001
Crack dependence 509 (53.3) 62 (54.9) 447 (53.1) 0.846 213 (46.3) 77 (49.0) 136 (44.9) 0.595
Cocaine dependence 516 (54.0) 70 (61.9) 446 (53.0) 0.069 308 (67.0) 105 (66.9) 203 (67.0) 0.674
Withdrawal symptoms in last 6 months 343 (35.9) 72 (63.7) 271 (32.3) < 0.001 276 (60.0) 104 (66.2) 172 (56.8) 0.003
Drug treatment, last 6 months
Detoxification 167 (17.5) 28 (24.8) 139 (16.5) 0.034 171 (37.2) 47 (29.9) 124 (40.9) 0.018
Methadone maintenance 145 (15.2) 35 (30.1) 110 (13.1) < 0.001 167 (36.3) 120 (39.6) 47 (29.9) 0.942
Medical outcomes
HIV+ 101 (10.6) 6 (5.3) 95 (11.3) 0.056 22 (4.8) 6 (3.8) 16 (5.3) 0.457
HCV+ 36 (3.8) 6 (5.3) 30 (3.6) 0.247b 255 (55.4) 86 (54.8) 169 (55.8) 0.596
HBV+ 211 (22.1) 24 (21.2) 187 (22.2) 0.832 141 (30.7) 47 (29.9) 94 (31.0) 0.763
Overdose 94 (9.8) 19 (16.8) 75 (8.9) 0.008 96 (20.9) 39 (24.8) 57 (18.8) 0.131
Sexual behaviors
Mean age 1 st intercourse (SD) c 14.0 (3.0) 13.9 (3.1) 14.0 (2.9) 0.652 14.1 (2.7) 14.5 (2.4) 13.9 (2.8) 0.020
Mean number of sexual partners (SD) c 4.8 (14.2) 3.6 (7.5) 4.9 (14.8) 0.144 3.9 (9.8) 4.7 (13.6) 3.4 (6.7) 0.319
Traded sex for money/drugs 304 (31.8) 32 (28.3) 272 (32.3) 0.389 131 (28.5) 48 (30.6) 83 (27.4) 0.487
Sexual partners in last 2 months
Crack user 354 (37.1) 38 (33.6) 316 (37.5) 0.655 96 (20.9) 32 (20.4) 64 (21.1) 0.818
Cocaine user 323 (33.8) 41 (36.3) 282 (33.5) 0.496 104 (22.6) 41 (26.1) 63 (20.8) 0.239
Heroin use 230 (24.1) 54 (47.8) 176 (20.9) < 0.001 123 (26.7) 47 (29.9) 76 (25.1) 0.247
Lifetime IDU 81 (8.5) 16 (14.2) 65 (7.7) 0.034 122 (26.5) 39 (24.8) 83 (27.4) 0.576
Recent IDU 50 (5.2) 10 (8.8) 40 (4.8) 0.069 110 (23.9) 36 (22.9) 74 (24.4) 0.693
Partner MSM f 388 (40.6) 36 (31.9) 352 (41.8) 0.061 156 (33.9) 51 (32.5) 105 (34.7) 0.573
Hepatitis infected 34 (3.6) 8 (7.1) 26 (3.1) 0.040b 38 (8.3) 12 (7.6) 26 (8.6) 0.639
HIV infected 47 (4.9) 3 (2.7) 44 (5.2) 0.930b 9 (2.0) 4 (2.5) 5 (1.7) 0.385b
  1. a chi-square unless otherwise indicated, b Fisher's exact test, c ttest, d Column percents may not add up due to missing values, e used more than one drug out of the following in lifetime: heroin, crack, cocaine, methamphetamine, f MSM = men who have sex with men