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Table 1 Socio-demographics of 1415 drug users, by illicit methadone (IM) use and injection status

From: Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study

  Non-injection drug users Injection drug users
  Total Current IM use No current IM use   Total Current IM use No current IM use  
  n = 955 n = 113 n = 842   n = 460 n = 157 n = 303  
  n(%) d n(%) n(%) p-value a n(%) d n(%) n(%) p-value a
Sex         
   Male 664 (69.5) 76 (67.3) 588 (69.8) 0.576 370 (80.4) 125 (79.6) 245 (80.9) 0.751
   Female 289 (30.3) 37 (32.7) 252 (29.9) 0.541 88 (19.1) 30 (19.1) 58 (19.1) 0.993
   Transgender 2 (0.2) 0 (0) 2 (0.2) 1.000b 2 (0.4) 2 (1.3) 0 (0) 0.120b
Race         
   Hispanic 430 (45.0) 67 (59.3) 363 (43.1) 0.001 373 (81.1) 133 (84.7) 240 (79.2) 0.172
   Black 436 (45.7) 36 (31.9) 400 (47.5) 0.002 21 (4.6) 5 (3.2) 16 (5.3) 0.304
   White 25 (2.6) 1 (0.9) 24 (2.9) 0.960b 51 (11.1) 16 (10.2) 35 (11.6) 0.651
   Other 64 (6.7) 9 (8.0) 55 (6.5) 0.567 14 (3.0) 3 (1.9) 11 (3.6) 0.398b
Mean age (SD) c 30.1 (6.5) 31.8 (6.2) 29.8 (6.5) 0.002 26.4 (5.3) 26.1 (4.9) 26.6 (5.5) 0.388
Sexual orientation         
   Heterosexual 786 (82.3) 100 (88.5) 686 (81.5) 0.033 395 (85.9) 133 (84.7) 262 (86.5) 0.961
   MSM e 90 (9.4) 5 (4.4) 85 (10.1) 0.051 13 (8.3) 32 (10.6) 13 (8.3) 0.447
   WSW f 102 (10.7) 9 (8.0) 93 (11.0) 0.327 11 (7.0) 21 (6.9) 11 (7.0) 0.955
< High school education 526 (55.1) 68 (60.2) 458 (54.4) 0.246 190 (41.3) 67 (42.7) 123 (40.6) 0.709
Homeless in last 6 months 549 (57.5) 60 (53.1) 489 (58.1) 0.315 332 (72.2) 117 (74.5) 215 (71.0) 0.419
Main source of income         
   Employed 180 (18.8) 18 (15.9) 162 (19.2) 0.334 59 (12.8) 20 (12.7) 39 (12.9) 0.925
   Illegal 386 (40.4) 53 (46.9) 333 (39.5) 0.203 254 (55.2) 99 (63.1) 155 (51.2) 0.021
   Public Assistance 221 (23.1) 27 (23.9) 194 (23.0) 0.956 65 (14.1) 16 (10.2) 49 (16.2) 0.071
   Other 146 (15.3) 15 (13.3) 131 (15.6) 0.459 72 (15.7) 20 (12.7) 52 (17.2) 0.194
Have children 547 (57.3) 77 (68.1) 470 (55.8) 0.013 216 (47.0) 70 (44.6) 146 (48.2) 0.463
Ever been incarcerated 661 (69.2) 88 (77.9) 573 (68.1) 0.044 323 (70.2) 112 (71.3) 211 (69.6) 0.632
Site         
   Bronx 348 (36.4) 43 (38.1) 305 (36.2) 0.704 232 (50.4) 83 (52.9) 149 (49.2) 0.453
   Harlem 449 (47.0) 53 (46.9) 396 (47.0) 0.980 171 (37.2) 59 (37.6) 112 (37.0) 0.907
   Brooklyn 67 (7.0) 11 (9.7) 56 (6.7) 0.228 22 (4.8) 6 (3.8) 16 (5.3) 0.487
   Queens 47 (4.9) 5 (4.4) 42 (5.0) 0.880 6 (1.3) 3 (1.9) 3 (1.0) 0.415
   Lower East Side 40 (4.2) 0 (0) 40 (4.8) 1.000b 27 (5.9) 6 (3.8) 21 (6.9) 0.178
HIV+ 101 (10.6) 6 (5.3) 95 (11.3) 0.056 22 (4.8) 6 (3.8) 16 (5.3) 0.457
HBV+ 211 (22.1) 24 (21.2) 187 (22.2) 0.832 141 (30.7) 47 (29.9) 94 (31.0) 0.763
HCV+ 36 (3.8) 6 (5.3) 30 (3.6) 0.247b 255 (55.4) 86 (54.8) 169 (55.8) 0.596
  1. a chi-square unless otherwise indicated
  2. b Fisher's exact test
  3. c ttest
  4. d Column percents may not add up due to missing values
  5. e MSM = men who have sex with men (by behavior or orientation); applies to males only
  6. f WSW = women who have sex with women (by behavior or orientation); applies to females only