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Table 5 Association between FOBT use and poverty rate at ZIP5 and ZIP3 level by examining six potential pathways.

From: Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V Model VI Model VII Model VIII Model IX
Fixed Effects          
   ZIP5 poverty (>= 10% vs. <10%) - 1.21 (0.85–1.72) 1.28 (0.90–1.82) 1.22 (0.85–1.74) 1.25 (0.87–1.80) 1.21 (0.85–1.71) 1.24 (0.87–1.75) 1.21 (0.85–1.73) 1.37 (0.95–1.97)
IOR * - 0.21–6.97 0.20–8.09 0.20–7.29 0.22–7.08 0.20–7.23 0.21–7.15 0.21–7.04 0.20–9.29
   ZIP3 poverty (>= 20% vs. <20%) - 0.83 (0.64–1.07) 0.83 (0.62–1.11) 0.85 (0.66–1.11) 0.79 (0.58–1.06) 0.81 (0.62–1.05) 0.84 (0.65–1.09) 0.83 (0.64–1.07) 0.76 (0.54–1.07)
IOR - - - - - - - - -
Random Effects          
   ZIP5 [Var. (SE)] 0.910 (0.253) 0.933 (0.262) 1.035 (0.289) 0.977 (0.263) 0.914 (0.273) 0.976 (0.271) 0.937 (0.265) 0.940 (0.264) 1.117 (0.317)
MOR 2.48 2.51 2.64 2.57 2.49 2.57 2.52 2.52 2.74
ICC (%) 21.67 22.09 23.93 22.90 21.74 22.88 22.17 22.22 25.35
PCV (%) - 2.53 13.74 7.36 0.44 7.25 2.97 3.30 22.75
   ZIP3 [Var. (SE)] 0.116 (0.075) 0.114 (0.074) 0.111 (0.084) 0.114 (0.077) 0.151 (0.094) 0.110 (0.073) 0.111 (0.073) 0.116 (0.075) 0.146 (0.104)
MOR 1.38 1.38 1.37 1.38 1.45 1.37 1.37 1.38 1.44
ICC (%) 3.41 3.35 3.26 3.35 4.39 3.24 3.26 3.41 4.25
   ZIP3 & ZIP5 1.026 1.047 1.146 1.091 1.065 1.086 1.048 1.056 1.263
MOR 2.63 2.65 2.78 2.71 2.68 2.70 2.66 2.67 2.92
DIC § 1323 1313 1190 1303 793 1283 1268 1313 713
  1. Note: Model I is an empty model; Model II only contains area poverty; Model III contains area poverty and demographic variable (age, gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, employment and income); Model IV contains area poverty and health condition variables (BMI < weight/height2>, chronic diseases history <asthma, diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease and heart attack> and depression/anxiety history); Model V contains area poverty and access to care variables (health plan coverage, primary care physician and routine check-up for medical status); Model VI contains area poverty and emotional support; Model VII contains area poverty and health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol-consumption and physical exercise); Model VIII contains area poverty and self-rated health status; Model IX contains area poverty and all individual-level factors. * IOR: Interval odds ratio; MOR: Median odds ratio; PCV: Proportional change in variance relative to Model I; §DIC, Deviance information criterion; P < 0.01.