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Table 4 Association between endoscopy use and poverty rate at ZIP5 and ZIP3 level by examining six potential pathways.

From: Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V Model VI Model VII Model VIII Model IX
Fixed Effects          
   ZIP5 poverty (>= 10% vs. <10%) - 0.66 (0.54–0.79) 0.66 (0.55–0.79) 0.64 (0.52–0.78) 0.70 (0.58–0.85) 0.66 (0.54–0.80) 0.68 (0.56–0.81) 0.66 (0.54–0.80) 0.72 (0.58–0.90)
IOR * - 0.18–2.38 0.19–2.28 0.17–2.35 0.20–2.49 0.18–2.38 0.19–2.42 0.18–2.38 0.21–2.48
   ZIP3 poverty (>= 20% vs. <20%) - 0.68 (0.55–0.84) 0.74 (0.57–0.95) 0.65 (0.53–0.79) 0.65 (0.55–0.76) 0.68 (0.55–0.84) 0.72 (0.57–0.91) 0.67 (0.54–0.83) 0.69 (0.56–0.85)
IOR - - - - - - - - -
Random Effects          
   ZIP5 [Var. (SE)] 0.513 (0.165) 0.505 (0.155) 0.467 (0.134) 0.518 (0.159) 0.487 (0.130) 0.501 (0.150) 0.495 (0.152) 0.506 (0.155) 0.462 (0.122)
MOR 1.98 1.97 1.92 1.99 1.95 1.96 1.96 1.97 1.91
ICC (%) 13.49 13.31 12.43 13.60 12.89 13.22 13.08 13.33 12.31
PCV (%) - -1.56 -8.97 -0.97 -5.07 -2.34 -3.51 -1.36 -9.94
   ZIP3 [Var. (SE)] 0.095 (0.033) 0.016 (0.020) 0 0.021 (0.022) 0 0.013 (0.018) 0.019 (0.020) 0.017 (0.020) 0
MOR 1.34 1.13 1.00 1.15 1.00 1.11 1.14 1.13 1.00
ICC (%) 2.81 0.48 0 0.63 0 0.39 0.57 0.51 0
   ZIP3 & ZIP5 0.608 0.521 0.467 0.539 0.487 0.514 0.514 0.523 0.462
MOR 2.10 1.99 1.92 2.01 1.95 1.98 1.98 1.99 1.91
DIC § 4213 4151 4056 4119 3747 4145 4125 4142 3659
  1. Note: Model I is an empty model; Model II only contains area poverty; Model III contains area poverty and demographic variable (age, gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, employment and income); Model IV contains area poverty and health condition variables (BMI < weight/height2>, chronic diseases history <asthma, diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease and heart attack> and depression/anxiety history); Model V contains area poverty and access to care variables (health plan coverage, primary care physician and routine check-up for medical status); Model VI contains area poverty and emotional support; Model VII contains area poverty and health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol-consumption and physical exercise); Model VIII contains area poverty and self-rated health status; Model IX contains area poverty and all individual-level factors. * IOR: Interval odds ratio; MOR: Median odds ratio; PCV: Proportional change in variance relative to Model I; §DIC, Deviance information criterion; P < 0.01.