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Table 3 Association between CRC screening use and poverty rate at ZIP5 and ZIP3 level by examining six potential pathways.

From: Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V Model VI Model VII Model VIII Model IX
Fixed Effects          
   ZIP5 poverty (>= 10% vs. <10%) - 0.69 (0.58–0.81) 0.72 (0.62–0.85) 0.67 (0.57–0.79) 0.77 (0.66–0.90) 0.70 (0.59–0.82) 0.71 (0.61–0.83) 0.69 (0.59–0.81) 0.81 (0.67–0.98)
IOR * - 0.18–2.62 0.19–2.71 0.17–2.60 0.21–2.88 0.18–2.65 0.19–2.67 0.18–2.62 0.22–3.00
   ZIP3 poverty (>= 20% vs. <20%) - 0.66 (0.52–0.83) 0.74 (0.55–0.98) 0.64 (0.51–0.81) 0.62 (0.51–0.76) 0.66 (0.52–0.83) 0.69 (0.52–0.91) 0.66 (0.52–0.83) 0.64 (0.50–0.83)
IOR - - - - - - - - -
Random Effects          
   ZIP5 [Var. (SE)] 0.573 (0.167) 0.543 (0.139) 0.529 (0.131) 0.558 (0.143) 0.529 (0.145) 0.546 (0.139) 0.534 (0.138) 0.544 (0.139) 0.519 (0.127)
MOR 2.06 2.02 2.00 2.04 2.00 2.02 2.01 2.02 1.99
ICC (%) 14.83 14.17 13.85 14.50 13.85 14.19 13.96 14.19 13.63
PCV (%) - -5.24 -7.68 -2.62 -7.68 -5.06 -6.81 -5.06 -9.42
   ZIP3 [Var. (SE)] 0.061 (0.034) 0 0 0 0.003 (0.018) 0 0 0 0
MOR 1.27 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.05 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
ICC (%) 1.82 0 0 0 0.09 0 0 0 0
   ZIP3 & ZIP5 0.634 0.543 0.529 0.558 0.532 0.544 0.534 0.544 0.519
MOR 2.14 2.02 2.00 2.04 2.01 2.02 2.01 2.02 1.99
DIC § 4226 4163 4060 4149 3699 4152 4128 4155 3621
  1. Note: Model I is an empty model; Model II only contains area poverty; Model III contains area poverty and demographic variable (age, gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, employment and income); Model IV contains area poverty and health condition variables (BMI < weight/height2>, chronic diseases history <asthma, diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease and heart attack> and depression/anxiety history); Model V contains area poverty and access to care variables (health plan coverage, primary care physician and routine check-up for medical status); Model VI contains area poverty and emotional support; Model VII contains area poverty and health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol-consumption and physical exercise); Model VIII contains area poverty and self-rated health status; Model IX contains area poverty and all individual-level factors. * IOR: Interval odds ratio; MOR: Median odds ratio; PCV: Proportional change in variance relative to Model I; §DIC, Deviance information criterion; P < 0.01.