Skip to main content

Table 2 Adjusted fixed effects of individual-level factors on colorectal cancer screening in Missouri, 2006.

From: Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

Variable Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)*
  CRC screening Endoscopy use FOBT use
Demographics    
   Age (vs. 50–64)    
65+ 1.18 (0.90–1.55) 1.33 (1.03–1.72) 1.50 (0.80–2.82)
   Sex (vs. Male)    
Female 0.87 (0.64–1.17) 0.89 (0.68–1.16) 0.88 (0.61–1.28)
   Race/ethnicity (vs. White)    
African American 1.47 (0.98–2.20) 1.64 (1.06–2.52) 0.75 (0.21–2.68)
Hispanic/Others 0.56 (0.43–0.72) 0.49 (0.34–0.72) 1.03 (0.44–2.41)
   Marital Status (vs. Yes)    
No 0.84 (0.59–1.21) 0.81 (0.55–1.20) 1.13 (0.69–1.86)
   Education (vs. ≥ College-level)    
<College-level 0.70 (0.52–0.95) 0.69 (0.49–0.98) 0.89 (0.64–1.24)
   Employment (vs. Employed)    
Not 1.17 (0.85–1.61) 0.97 (0.71–1.33) 1.25 (0.68–2.30)
Retired 1.43 (1.15–1.79) 1.16 (0.92–1.46) 1.02 (0.55–1.90)
   Income (vs. >$50 k)    
$25 k~50 k 0.78 (0.62–0.98) 0.80 (0.66–0.98) 0.58 (0.34–1.01)
<$25 k 0.85 (0.67–1.08) 0.86 (0.63–1.18) 0.78 (0.50–1.22)
Health Condition    
   BMI (vs. Normal)    
Overweight 1.40 (1.04–1.88) 1.30 (1.00–1.69) 1.12 (0.67–1.87)
Obesity 1.57 (1.13–2.18) 1.45 (1.07–1.98) 1.04 (0.67–1.62)
   Comorbidity (vs. No)    
No    
Yes 0.96 (0.71–1.31) 1.06 (0.82–1.38) 1.00 (0.61–1.65)
   Mental History (vs. No)    
Yes 1.44 (1.14–1.83) 1.70 (1.44–2.01) 0.78 (0.49–1.22)
Access to Care    
   HealthPlan (vs. Yes)    
No 0.57 (0.35–0.90) 0.58 (0.38–0.89) 0.56 (0.25–1.25)
   Personal Doctor (vs. Yes)    
No 0.48 (0.32–0.74) 0.42 (0.27–0.64) 0.67 (0.25–1.81)
   Check-up (vs. <1 yr)    
2–5 yr 0.41 (0.32–0.54) 0.55 (0.41–0.75) 0.24 (0.13–0.46)
>5 yr/Never 0.12 (0.05–0.27) 0.13 (0.06–0.25) 0.19 (0.05–0.82)
Social Support    
   Emotional support need (vs. Usually+)    
Sometimes/rarely/Never 0.78 (0.58–1.06) 0.83 (0.63–1.10) 1.12 (0.85–1.46)
Health-related behavior    
   Smoking (vs. Never)    
Former 1.01 (0.62–1.64) 0.96 (0.66–1.39) 1.33 (0.86–2.07)
Somedays/EveryDay 0.89 (0.65–1.22) 0.82 (0.63–1.07) 1.28 (0.64–2.55)
   Heavy Drinker (vs. No)    
Yes 1.73 (0.89–3.38) 2.20 (1.09–4.44) 0.78 (0.22–2.76)
   Physical Exercise (vs. Had)    
No 0.90 (0.68–1.17) 0.89 (0.68–1.16) 0.86 (0.60–1.22)
Health Status    
   Self-rated Health (vs. Good+)    
Fair/Poor 1.00 (0.79–1.26) 1.06 (0.82–1.36) 0.88 (0.62–1.26)
  1. * All of three 3-level multilevel logistic models were adjusted for all individual-level factors and poverty rates at ZIP5- and ZIP3-level.