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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population age 50 or older from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system, Missouri, 2006

From: Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

Variable ZIP-5 level poverty rate   ZIP-3 level poverty rate  
  <10% 10~19% >= 20% P <10% 10~19% >= 20% P
Number of ZIP-5 areas 251 289 119   - - -  
Number of ZIP-3 areas - - -   4 19 2  
Number of Participants* 1152 1346 489   586 2307 124  
        
CRC screening use     <0.001     <0.001
No 43.5 51.5 51.4   42.3 49.1 60.3  
Yes 56.5 48.6 48.6   57.7 50.9 39.7  
Endoscopy use     <0.001     <0.001
No 49.7 57.9 57.4   47.6 55.6 65.8  
Yes 50.3 42.2 42.6   52.4 44.4 34.2  
FOBT use     0.118     0.753
No 84.8 85.8 88.8   85.7 85.9 88.2  
Yes 15.2 14.3 11.3   14.3 14.2 11.8  
Demographics         
   Age     0.045     0.088
50–64 years 52.7 47.7 49.7   54.1 49.1 48.4  
65+ years 47.3 52.3 50.3   45.9 50.9 51.6  
   Sex     0.891     0.126
Male 37.8 38.5 37.4   40.3 37.9 30.7  
Female 62.2 61.5 62.6   59.7 62.1 69.4  
   Race/ethnicity     <0.001     <0.001
White 92.5 91.1 60.9   91.1 85.3 92.7  
African American 2.2 3.2 31.5   2.6 8.9 1.6  
Hispanic/Others 4.6 5.0 6.1   5.5 5.0 4.0  
Refused 0.7 0.7 1.4   0.9 0.8 1.6  
   Marital Status     <0.001     <0.001
Married 57.0 52.8 38.9   61.1 50.2 47.6  
Not married 42.9 47.1 61.2   38.9 49.7 52.4  
Refused 0.1 0.1 0.0   0.0 0.1 0.0  
   Education     <0.001     <0.001
≥ College-level 51.3 42.3 40.5   48.8 45.6 26.6  
<College-level 48.7 57.7 59.5   51.2 54.4 73.4  
   Employment     0.003     <0.001
Employed 38.6 37.0 30.5   41.7 35.7 26.8  
Unemployed 17.3 19.0 24.8   14.5 20.2 30.1  
Retired 44.1 43.9 44.7   43.8 44.2 43.1  
   Household income     <0.001     <0.001
>$50, 000 30.0 17.8 16.0   32.8 19.9 19.4  
$25,000 – 50,000 28.5 30.6 24.5   27.1 29.4 21.8  
<$25,000 27.3 38.0 47.7   28.5 36.4 50.0  
Missing 14.3 13.6 11.9   11.6 14.4 8.9  
Health Condition         
   Body Mass Index     0.027     0.468
<25.0 31.6 31.4 26.2   28.7 31.3 26.6  
25.0 – 29.9 39.0 36.3 38.2   39.1 37.4 37.9  
30+ 26.8 30.6 33.6   29.4 29.6 33.9  
Missing 2.6 1.6 1.8   2.9 1.8 1.6  
   History of chronic Diseases     0.001     0.445
No 64.3 57.4 54.2   62.8 58.8 60.5  
One or more 34.9 41.8 45.0   36.5 40.3 39.5  
Don't know 0.8 0.9 0.8   0.7 0.9 0.0  
   Anxiety/Depression     0.377     0.036
No 75.4 73.2 73.6   73.9 74.3 68.6  
Yes 20.1 20.5 20.5   22.0 19.6 28.2  
Don't know 4.5 6.3 5.9   4.1 6.1 3.2  
Access to Care         
   Health insurance     <0.001     <0.001
Yes 94.3 92.3 88.3   96.6 91.4 91.1  
No 5.6 7.4 11.7   3.2 8.5 7.3  
Don't know 0.2 0.3 0.0   0.2 0.1 1.6  
   Having a primary care physician    0.011      0.114
Yes 92.2 90.5 87.5   92.8 90.1 91.9  
No 7.8 9.5 12.5   7.2 9.9 8.1  
   Routine check-up     0.001     
<1 yr 75.0 70.7 75.7   77.7 72.2 71.0  
2–5 yrs 17.4 16.6 13.9   16.2 16.5 16.9  
>5 yrs/Never 7.1 11.1 9.8   5.5 10.2 11.3  
Don't know 0.5 1.6 0.6   0.7 1.1 0.8  
Social Support         
   Emotional support    <0.001      0.021
Always/Usually 78.2 74.2 65.0   79.2 73.1 72.6  
Sometimes/Never 17.2 19.4 28.8   16.4 20.8 24.2  
Missing 4.6 6.5 6.1   4.4 6.1 3.2  
Health-related behavior         
   Smoking status     0.013     <0.001
Never 47.7 47.0 41.5   46.4 46.7 42.7  
Former 37.1 34.1 37.0   41.8 34.3 32.3  
Current Smoker 15.0 18.9 21.1   11.6 18.9 23.4  
Missing 0.2 0.1 0.4   0.2 0.1 1.6  
   Heavy alcohol use     0.877     0.151
No 94.5 94.6 94.3   94.5 94.3 99.2  
Yes 3.9 3.4 3.7   4.1 3.6 0.8  
Missing 1.6 2.0 2.0   1.4 2.0 0.0  
   Physically Active     <0.001     <0.001
Yes 71.3 63.7 62.0   71.2 65.9 52.4  
No 28.7 36.3 38.0   28.8 34.1 47.6  
Health Status         
   Self-rated Health     <0.001     <0.001
Good/Above 75.4 67.7 62.4   75.5 68.8 60.5  
Fair/Poor 24.6 32.3 37.6   24.5 31.2 39.5  
  1. * Participants with missing poverty rate were not listed; † values showed below are percentages.