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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the sample, by Physical (PCS) and Mental (MCS) Score Components

From: Social relationships and HRQL: A cross-sectional survey among older Italian adults

  Variables   PCS MCS
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES Age 60–74 45.24 (10.50) 48.20 (10.82)
   75+ 37.72 (11.51) 45.15 (12.07)
  Gender male 44.68 (10.97) 48.92 (10.58)
   female 41.42 (11.49) 45.90 (11.71)
CULTURAL-ECONOMIC VARIABLES Educational level no formal education 38.15 (11.45) 44.60 (11.96)
   primary 43.65 (11.04) 47.70 (11.12)
   secondary 47.60 (9.94) 49.73 (10.21)
   university 48.57 (9.59) 50.46 (9.83)
  Self assessment of household income good 47.49 (10.14) 50.87 (9.81)
   adequate 43.94 (11.08) 48.41 (10.74)
   inadequate 40.38 (11.57) 44.80 (11.96)
   absolutely inadequate 37.62 (11.61) 40.18 (12.85)
LIFESTYLE Tobacco use smoker 46.15 (10.20) 48.30 (10.95)
   former smoker 43.60 (11.20) 48.09 (11.02)
   non-smoker 41.88 (11.53) 46.65 (11.49)
  Regular physical activities no 41.83 (11.61) 46.56 (11.57)
   yes 47.24 (9.14) 50.08 (9.70)
SOCIAL NETWORKS Marital status married 44.16 (10.93) 48.11 (10.90)
   unmarried 40.71 (11.78) 45.79 (11.85)
  Living alone no 43.39 (11.24) 47.67 (11.11)
   yes 41.05 (11.66) 45.73 (11.89)
  Distance too long between own home and relatives' home no 43.26 (11.29) 47.67 (11.12)
   yes 41.14 (11.62) 45.37 (11.97)
  Frequency of seeing/meeting friends I terzile 38.93 (12.02) 43.42 (12.49)
   II terzile 42.18 (11.29) 46.89 (11.23)
   III terzile 44.69 (10.79) 48.80 (10.58)
  Frequency of seeing/meeting family I terzile 41.72 (11.81) 45.62 (12.07)
   II terzile 42.22 (11.49) 47.02 (11.31)
   III terzile 43.89 (10.98) 48.27 (10.77)
  Leisure time for spiritual activities in the last three months no 42.4 (11.54) 46.87 (11.49)
   yes 45.70 (9.90) 49.51 (9.96)
  Leisure time for recreational activities in the last three months no 41.65 (11.51) 46.45 (11.60)
   yes 48.38 (8.91) 50.81 (9.15)
GEOGRAPHICAL AREA Regional aggregate North-West 44.81 (10.84) 48.10 (10.92)
   North-East 44.14 (11.13) 48.37 (11.18)
   Centre 43.15 (11.30) 46.95 (11.52)
   South 41.09 (11.38) 46.23 (11.26)
   Islands 41.02 (12.01) 46.64 (11.83)
MEDICAL CONDITION AND HEALTH CARE SERVICES ACCESS/USE Any disease in the last four weeks no 46.51 (10.16) 49.69 (10.00)
   yes 37.94 (11.08) 43.93 (12.14)
  Reduced autonomy because of chronic disease no 45.7 (9.91) 48.97 (10.31)
   yes, sometimes 34.19 (9.47) 42.66 (11.99)
   yes, often 28.71 (8.82) 37.95 (12.48)
  Chronic medical condition none 48.72 (9.16) 50.87 (9.23)
   one chronic diseases 44.18 (10.52) 48.37 (10.58)
   more than one chronic diseases 37.59 (11.09) 43.72 (12.21)
  Drugs in the last two days no 48.99 (8.61) 51.38 (8.62)
   yes 40.05 (11.39) 45.33 (11.89)
   I don't know 42.93 (11.15) 47.29 (10.89)
  Medical consultation no 45.49 (10.58) 48.93 (10.51)
   yes 38.97 (11.41) 44.73 (12.00)
  1. (Mean and SD)