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Table 2 Questions to help shape HIAs of road transport interventions

From: Assessing the unintended health impacts of road transport policies and interventions: translating research evidence for use in policy and practice

Define nature and extent of intervention or policy being assessed
• What are the specific transport-related changes proposed?
• What is/are the overall aim(s) and objectives of the transport changes proposed?
• How will the changes be implemented?
• What phases of implementation are there, e.g. consultation, implementation/construction, maintenance?
Research evidence about health impacts of the intervention
• What is the research evidence that this intervention is effective in achieving its stated aims e.g. reducing speed?
• What is the research evidence that this intervention will have the intended health impacts (positive or negative)? Include any stated health objectives of the intervention.
• What is the research evidence that this intervention has unintended health related impacts (positive or negative)?
Define features of the local area
• What is/are the geographical area(s) covered by the intervention?
• What are the key features of the area:
• Is it urban or rural?
• What transport infrastructure currently exists?
• What facilities and amenities are there that people need to access?
Define populations
• What populations will be affected by the changes?
• Note any vulnerable population groups.
• For each impact identified who will be affected positively.
• For each impact identified who will be affected negatively.
• Will the impacts be distributed equally in difference socio-economic groups? If not this may have implications for health and social inequalities.
Economic implications
• What are the predicted effects of the proposal on the local economy?
• How will travel costs be affected for individuals?
Changes in travel and traffic patterns
• How will traffic levels or speed change? If appropriate, consider different parts of the affected area separately.
• Where relevant, will improved provision lead to increases in overall Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT) i.e. induced traffic?
• Will there be any part of the affected area where traffic levels, speed, or infrastructure, will change to the extent that severance effects may occur?
• How will these changes affect access to essential services and amenities for those living in or travelling through the affected area?
• What will be the effect on individuals' travel patterns? Consider levels of driving, walking, cycling, and public transport use. Consider travel patterns of those both living in and travelling through the affected area(s).
• How will the expected changes affect safety for vehicle drivers or other transport users?
• How will the expected changes affect safety for other vulnerable road users, e.g. pedestrians?
• How will the expected changes affect air quality in the affected area?
• How will the expected changes affect noise levels in the affected area?
• Will there be a shift to more or less physically active forms of transport? (Walking, cycling or public transport use)
• Will this shift affect individuals' levels of physical activity overall?
• Will this change in physical activity be sufficient to affect health?
• Will changed levels of physical activity be seen in the general population of the affected area or in a minority of motivated individuals?
• How will safety, and perceptions of safety, among vulnerable road users and public transport users be affected?
Traffic and impact displacement
• Will there be displacement of traffic and related impacts to or from surrounding areas? For example, traffic calming may lead to less traffic in one area but displace traffic to a peripheral area. If displacement is expected a Health Impact Assessment should consider impacts on both areas.