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Table 1 Characteristics of cases and controls for Chinese men and women from Hong Kong in 1998

From: Does economic development contribute to sex differences in ischaemic heart disease mortality? Hong Kong as a natural experiment using a case-control study

   35–64 65+
   IHD Pneumonia IHD Pneumonia
Characteristic   Cases Controls † Restricted controls ‡ Cases Controls § Cases Controls † Restricted controls ‡ Cases Controls §
Men N 224 3190 3146 127 3287 965 8382 8153 1195 8152
   Age Mean 56.7 53.7 53.7 55.2 53.9 76.9 76.8 76.7 80.9 76.2
   Education No formal (%) 10 12 12 17 11 28 33 33 36 32
  Primary (%) 52 48 48 55 48 49 48 48 45 49
  Secondary (%) 38 40 40 28 41 23 19 19 19 19
   Housing type Hut/shared (%) 11 13 13 12 13 7 10 10 9 9
  Public estate (%) 47 49 49 51 48 45 49 49 48 49
  Self-owned (%) 38 33 33 27 33 42 35 35 34 36
  Other (%) 4 5 5 10 5 5 7 7 9 6
   Birthplace Hong Kong (%) 38 38 38 35 39 15 12 12 12 13
   10 years previously            
   Exercise <1/month (%) 76 75 75 86 74 64 69 69 69 68
   Smoking Never (%) 35 33 33 23 34 36 28 28 34 28
  Ex-smoker (%) 7 6 6 8 6 20 21 21 24 21
  Current smoker (%) 58 61 61 69 60 44 51 51 43 51
   Alcohol use Never (%) 47 56 44 45 43 57 48 48 54 48
Women N 68 1553 1314 48 1573 967 7717 7332 1339 7345
   Age Mean 57.5 53.0 53.3 54.1 53.1 81.0 80.9 81.1 85.6 80.0
   Education No formal (%) 35 24 26 38 24 70 71 71 75 70
  Primary (%) 40 45 45 42 45 22 23 23 18 24
  Secondary (%) 25 31 29 21 31 8 6 6 7 6
   Housing type Hut/shared (%) 7 8 8 13 8 9 9 9 10 8
  Public estate (%) 49 50 51 54 50 46 45 46 43 46
  Self-owned (%) 38 38 37 29 38 39 37 37 33 38
  Other (%) 6 4 4 4 4 6 9 9 14 7
   Birthplace Hong Kong (%) 29 45 44 38 45 13 13 14 13 13
   10 years previously            
   Exercise <1/month (%) 74 69 69 77 69 63 66 66 71 64
   Smoking Never (%) 88 90 89 85 90 79 76 76 80 76
  Ex-smoker (%) 1 1 1 0 1 7 9 9 8 8
  Current smoker (%) 10 9 10 14 9 14 15 15 12 15
   Alcohol use Never (%) 87 89 89 85 89 89 87 87 87 87
  1. IHD = ischaemic heart disease
  2. † all deaths excluding IHD deaths
  3. ‡ all deaths excluding deaths from IHD and hormone related cancers, i.e. breast cancer (ICD-9: 174), prostate cancer (ICD-9: 185), ovarian cancer (ICD-9: 183), and endometrial cancer (ICD-9: 182), and also diabetes (ICD-9: 250)
  4. § all deaths excluding deaths from pneumonia