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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population according to county poverty rate

From: Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

County Poverty Rate Reference 1st quartile 2nd quartile 3rd quartile Highest Poverty 4th quartile p-value
Total 92,072 196,672 170,701 175,549  
Demographic factors      
Maternal age (mean ± SD) 27.0 ± 5.4 27.33 ± 5.8 25.4 ± 5.7 24.9 ± 5.8 < 0.0001
Reside inside city limits (n,%) 64,198 (69.1%) 121,346 (61.7%) 143,357 (84.0%) 124,625 (71.0%) < 0.0001
Black race (n,%) 1,823 (2.0%) 29,384 (14.9%) 26,551 (15.5%) 47,140 (26.8%) < 0.0001
Mother's education level < high school (n,%) 12,180 (13.2%) 26,930 (13.7%) 37,232 (21.8%) 51,609 (29.4%) < 0.0001
Father's education level < high school (n,%) 7,697 (8.4%) 13,794 (7.0%) 19,384 (11.4%) 22,270 (12.7%) < 0.0001
Married (n,%) 73,198 (79.5%) 147,841 (75.2%) 111,350 (65.2%) 102,479 (58.4%) < 0.0001
Indicators of low SES * (n,%) 25,066 (27.2%) 64,428 (32.8%) 87,947 (51.5%) 111,913 (63.7%) < 0.0001
Prenatal Care      
Inadequate prenatal care ** (n,%) 8,246 (9.0%) 21,285 (10.8%) 26,455 (15.5%) 38,045 (21.7%) < 0.0001
Behaviors      
Maternal tobacco use (n,%) 21,084 (22.9%) 36,417 (18.5%) 40,774 (23.9%) 43,416 (24.7%) < 0.0001
Maternal alcohol use (n,%) 1,703 (1.8%) 4,755 (2.4%) 4,003 (2.3%) 3,671 (2.1%) < 0.0001
Medical Risk Factors      
Medical risk factors (n,%) 19,792 (21.5%) 37,235 (18.9%) 36,802 (21.6%) 40,055 (22.8%) < 0.0001
  1. * composite variable including recipient of state-funded Medicaid, foodstamps or WIC assistance
  2. ** prenatal care initiated after 20 weeks of pregnancy