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Table 5 Mean values of potential factors influencing frequency of fish intake between CVD+ and CVD- households; comparison within and between the countries (n = 4,786)

From: Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD: A consumer survey from five European countries

  Belgium # Denmark † The Netherlands ‡
  CVD+ (n = 90) CVD-(n = 762) CVD+ (n = 45) CVD- (n = 1065) CVD+ (n = 88) CVD- (n = 721)
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Eating fish is healthy 6.25 1.21 6.09 1.21 6.61 0.65 6.37 1.00 5.98 1.57 5.99 1.33
Eating fish is nutritious 5.70 1.54 5.74 1.34 6.44 0.84 6.29 1.04 5.78 1.42 5.60 1.31
Satisfaction with life 4.47 1.50 4.78 1.29 5.05 1.13 5.36 1.17 4.91 1.24 4.82 1.19
Subjective health 4.32 1.34 4.69 1.15 5.13 1.41 5.28 1.26 4.59 1.52 4.76 1.29
Interest in healthy eating 6.12 0.90 5.78 0.99 6.18 0.81 5.54 1.09 5.67 1.13 5.26 1.10
Health involvement 6.50 0.94 6.35 1.14 6.29 0.96 5.88 1.12 6.03 1.64 6.10 1.29
Information sources             
Use of medical 2.99 1.64 2.48 1.43 2.77 1.44 2.07 1.18 3.07 1.65 2.08 1.28
Use of non-medical 2.21 1.37 1.99 1.27 1.93 1.31 1.79 1.19 2.16 1.45 1.91 1.21
Trust in medical 5.00 1.22 4.84 1.41 5.14 1.44 5.00 1.24 4.62 1.31 4.68 1.25
Trust in non-medical 4.19 1.44 4.26 1.43 4.29 1.48 4.61 1.27 4.10 1.24 4.30 1.27
Objective knowledge 2.47 1.12 2.42 1.14 3.40 0.78 3.09 1.01 2.27 1.01 2.18 0.99
Subjective knowledge 3.72 1.66 3.13 1.48 4.04 1.77 3.38 1.64 2.94 1.52 2.91 1.55
  Poland§ Spain¶     
  CVD+ (n = 87) CVD- (n = 928) CVD+ (n = 41) CVD-(n = 959)     
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD     
Eating fish is healthy 6.42 1.18 6.45 0.99 6.51 1.12 6.24 1.07     
Eating fish is nutritious 6.33 1.06 6.16 1.15 6.10 1.50 6.22 1.03     
Life satisfaction 4.49 1.26 4.38 1.25 4.31 1.25 4.89 1.15     
Subjective health 4.60 1.41 4.77 1.26 5.06 1.18 5.16 1.04     
Interest in healthy eating 6.35 0.87 6.14 0.95 6.21 0.68 6.12 0.91     
Health involvement 6.33 1.20 6.28 1.15 6.43 0.89 6.29 0.99     
Information sources             
Use of medical 3.62 1.72 3.04 1.77 4.00 1.67 3.58 1.64     
Use of non-medical 1.70 1.03 1.73 1.11 2.34 1.50 2.23 1.44     
Trust in medical 4.52 1.76 4.05 1.84 5.46 1.15 5.17 1.24     
Trust in non-medical 2.38 1.37 2.48 1.38 4.30 1.43 4.03 1.40     
Objective knowledge 2.21 1.08 2.17 1.03 2.71 0.95 2.57 0.94     
Subjective knowledge 3.83 1.45 3.71 1.48 3.98 1.29 3.83 1.37     
  1. Mean values of all constructs were significantly different between countries for CVD+ (P < 0.001) after adjusting for age (in all countries) and education (only in Poland) (ANCOVA). Mean values were significantly different between countries for CVD- for all constructs (P < 0.001), except for subjective health, health involvement and use of independent information sources (ANCOVA).
  2. # Significant differences between CVD groups in Belgium for life satisfaction (P = 0.018), subjective health (P < 0.001), use of medical info sources (P < 0.05) and subjective knowledge (P = 0.021) (ANOVA).
  3. † Significant differences between CVD groups in Denmark for subjective health (P = 0.014) and use of medical info sources (P = 0.002) (ANOVA).
  4. ‡ Significant differences between CVD groups in the Netherlands for healthy eating (P = 0.037) and use of medical info sources (P < 0.001) (ANOVA).
  5. §Significant differences between CVD groups in Poland for use of medical info sources (P = 0.014) and trust in medical info sources (P = 0.039) (ANOVA).
  6. ¶Significant differences between CVD groups in Spain for life satisfaction (P = 0.001) (ANOVA).