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Table 1 Cox regression analysis for models exploring the relationship between birth weight and CVD in later life (A).

From: Cardiovascular disease in a cohort exposed to the 1940–45 Channel Islands occupation

  Covariate
(referent category)
Hazard
Ratio
95%
confidence
intervals
p value
Unadjusted Birth weight (per kg increase) 1.30 0.82 – 2.07 0.26
Unstratified, adjusted for potential confounders 1 and competing exposures 2 Birth weight (per kg increase) 1.12 0.70 – 1.78 0.65
  Female sex (male) 0.76 0.47 – 1.24 0.27
  Preterm gestational age (term) 0.26 0.04 – 1.91 0.19
  Manual paternal occupation (non-manual) 1.42 0.88 – 2.30 0.15
  Exposure to occupation (unexposed) 2.65 1.62 – 4.34 0.01
Stratified by sex and adjusted for potential confounders 1 and competing exposures 2 Birth weight in men (per kg increase) 0.94 0.52 – 1.72 0.603
  Birth weight in women (per kg increase) 1.60 0.73 – 3.50  
  1. 1 Sex, gestational age at birth and paternal occupation at birth were all considered potential confounders. It is important to note that the interpretation of the estimated hazard ratios for potential confounders is not straightforward since the main exposure variable (birth weight) lies on the pathway between these potential confounders and the outcome variable (CVD in later life).
  2. 2 Exposure to the 1940–45 occupation was considered a competing exposure.
  3. 3 p value for interaction between birth weight and sex.