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Table 4 Adjusted associations of child health indicators with family behavioral factors and household past experience of hardships

From: Factors associated with the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in Afghanistan: family behaviour related to women and past experience of war-related hardships

  Morbidity       
  Diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks (n = 1,926) ARI in the last 2 weeks (n = 1,733)       
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2       
Family behavioral factors related to women OR C.I. OR C.I. OR C.I. OR C.I.       
Lack of education (y. vs. n.) 2.10 1.69 2.61 1.84 1.40 2.41 1.01 0.83 1.23 0.85 0.66 1.11       
Married < 16 y (y. vs. n.) 1.56 1.26 1.93 1.46 1.08 1.96 1.21 0.97 1.51 1.24 0.91 1.69       
Lack of maternal autonomy (y. vs. n.) 1.75 1.32 2.34 1.28 0.92 1.78 1.62 1.22 2.14 1.72 1.23 2.40       
Preference for female physician (female. vs. either.) 1.32 1.10 1.59 1.03 0.83 1.29 1.18 0.99 1.41 0.84 0.67 1.06       
Household experience of hardships                   
Shortage of basic material needs (y. vs. n.) 1.60 1.32 1.93 1.35 1.08 1.68 1.18 0.99 1.42 1.23 0.99 1.54       
Forced to leave preferred residence (y. vs. n.) 1.30 1.01 1.69 1.52 0.79 2.94 1.20 0.94 1.52 1.21 0.63 2.33       
Migration inside the country (y. vs. n.) 1.40 1.17 1.67 1.60 0.77 3.32 1.12 0.94 1.34 1.57 0.76 3.25       
Migration outside the country (y. vs. n.) 0.80 0.66 0.97 0.66 0.33 1.32 1.02 0.85 1.23 0.78 0.39 1.55       
  Nutritional status
  Emaciation (weight for height < -2z) (n = 1,673) Linear growth retardation (height for age < -2z) (n = 1,688) Underweight (weight for age < -2z) (n = 1,851)
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Family behavioral factors related to women OR C.I. OR C.I. OR C.I. OR C.I. OR C.I. OR C.I.
Lack of education (y. vs. n.) 0.81 0.59 1.11 1.03 0.69 1.53 1.53 1.24 1.88 1.22 0.95 1.57 1.49 1.18 1.88 1.10 0.82 1.48
Married < 16 y (y. vs. n.) 1.12 0.80 1.56 1.14 0.71 1.82 0.94 0.75 1.18 0.73 0.53 1.00 1.33 1.05 1.68 1.25 0.90 1.75
Lack of maternal autonomy (y. vs. n.) 1.36 0.89 2.09 1.67 1.00 2.81 1.74 1.32 2.29 1.38 1.01 1.90 1.74 1.26 2.42 1.46 1.00 2.14
Preference for female physician (female. vs. either.) 1.03 0.78 1.35 0.94 0.67 1.31 1.34 1.11 1.61 1.02 0.82 1.28 1.33 1.08 1.63 0.99 0.77 1.27
Household experience of hardships                   
Shortage of basic material needs (y. vs. n.) 0.81 0.61 1.07 0.71 0.51 0.98 1.26 1.04 1.52 1.07 0.87 1.33 1.21 0.98 1.49 1.02 0.80 1.31
Forced to leave preferred residence (y. vs. n.) 1.19 0.79 1.79 0.61 0.18 2.07 1.04 1.35 1.76 1.08 0.57 2.05 1.36 1.01 1.82 1.67 0.83 3.35
Migration inside the country (y. vs. n.) 1.28 0.97 1.68 1.14 0.30 4.32 1.25 1.04 1.49 1.23 0.60 2.53 1.61 1.32 1.97 2.48 1.13 5.44
Migration outside the country (y. vs. n.) 0.78 0.58 1.05 1.25 0.35 4.51 0.89 0.74 1.08 0.85 0.43 1.68 0.71 0.57 0.88 0.59 0.28 1.24
  1. Model 1: odds-ratios are adjusted for household economic status, age and sex of children, and age of mother.
  2. Model 2: odds-ratios are adjusted for household economic status, age and sex of children, age of mother, no running water and other variables of family behavioural factors and household experience of hardship (education of mother, child marriage, maternal autonomy, preference for female physician, shortage of basic material needs, forced to leave preferred residence, migration to inside of the country, migration to outside of the country).