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Table 3 Unadjusted associations of child health indicators with family behavioural factors, household past experience of hardships, household and children characteristics

From: Factors associated with the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in Afghanistan: family behaviour related to women and past experience of war-related hardships

  Diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks Acute respiratory infection in the last 2 weeks Emaciation (weight-for-height less than -2z) Linear growth retardation (height-for-age less than -2z) Under-weight (weight-for-ageless than -2z)
  n OR CI n OR CI n OR CI n OR CI n OR CI
Family behavioural factors related to women                     
Lack of education (y vs n) 2361 2.28 1.85 2.83 2154 1.00 0.83 1.21 2034 1.33 0.97 1.80 2059 1.55 1.26 1.89 2273 1.62 1.29 2.04
Married younger than 16 years (y vs n) 2325 1.64 1.33 2.03 2121 1.18 0.95 1.46 2001 1.18 0.85 1.63 2029 0.97 0.77 1.21 2237 1.41 1.12 1.78
Lack of maternal autonomy (y vs n) 2316 1.91 1.44 2.53 2112 1.65 1.25 2.18 1995 1.45 0.95 2.21 2021 1.77 1.34 2.32 2229 1.88 1.36 2.61
Preference for female physician (female vs either) 2349 1.41 1.18 1.68 2144 1.19 1.01 1.42 2023 1.07 0.82 1.40 2049 1.37 1.14 1.64 2261 1.39 1.14 1.70
Household experience of hardships                     
Shortage of basic material needs (y vs n) 2182 1.65 1.37 1.98 1983 1.15 0.96 1.37 1888 0.83 0.63 1.09 1904 1.28 1.06 1.54 2104 1.24 1.01 1.53
Forced to leave preferred residence (y vs n) 2338 1.39 1.08 1.80 2133 0.84 0.67 1.07 2019 1.24 0.83 1.86 2041 1.39 1.07 1.81 2251 1.42 1.06 1.90
Migration inside the country (y vs n) 2338 1.44 1.21 1.72 2133 0.92 0.77 1.09 2019 1.32 1.00 1.73 2041 1.27 1.06 1.52 2251 0.68 0.55 0.85
Migration outside the country (y vs n) 2252 0.78 0.64 0.94 2047 0.95 0.79 1.14 1942 0.76 0.56 1.02 1965 0.88 0.73 1.06 2168 1.67 1.37 2.04
Household economic status                     
Income (vs high) 820     743     727     742     803    
   Low 910 1.68 1.37 2.07 832 1.20 0.97 1.48 770 1.25 0.92 1.69 769 1.20 0.98 1.48 860 1.51 1.21 1.90
   Middle 618 1.37 1.09 1.72 568 1.39 1.11 1.75 526 0.99 0.69 1.40 536 1.09 0.87 1.37 597 1.02 0.79 1.32
No running water 2297 1.51 1.26 1.80 2095 1.08 0.91 1.29 1982 1.14 0.87 1.53 2005 1.61 1.33 1.94 2209 1.48 1.21 1.83
Characteristics of the child and access to health services                     
Gender (girl vs boy) 2361 1.07 0.90 1.28 2156 0.94 0.79 1.12 2034 0.92 0.70 1.19 2059 0.91 0.76 1.08 2273 1.00 0.83 1.22
Age (vs 0–11 months) 527     489     409     426     503    
   12–23 months 574 1.33 1.04 1.69 544 0.92 0.72 1.19 515 0.52 0.37 0.75 513 1.03 0.79 1.33 562 0.34 0.25 0.45
   24–35 months 466 1.00 0.77 1.30 430 1.02 0.78 1.34 423 0.47 0.32 0.69 424 1.20 0.91 1.58 460 0.58 0.44 0.76
   36–47 months 419 0.74 0.56 0.98 367 0.89 0.67 1.19 383 0.30 0.19 0.47 385 1.09 0.82 1.44 415 0.45 0.33 0.60
   48–59 months 375 0.48 0.35 0.65 326 0.93 0.69 1.24 304 0.40 0.25 0.62 311 0.86 0.63 1.16 333 0.32 0.23 0.45
Missing diphtheria, pertusis and tetanus vaccination (y vs n) 2197 1.67 1.33 2.11 2014 1.57 1.24 1.99 1941 1.34 0.95 1.90 1959 1.48 1.16 1.88 2154 1.98 1.55 2.54
  1. OR = odds-ratios; CI = confidence interval.