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Table 3 Performance of sets of selective screening criteria for diabetes mellitus among participants in SUNSET

From: Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the performance of a risk score among Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and ethnic Dutch: a cross-sectional population-based study

   Source AUC (bCI) c Sens (%, CI) Spec (%, CI) Screen (%) Prev (%) NNS
Set criteria for Hindustani Surinamese
1 age ≥ 45 years DCGP 0.62
(0.58–0.67)
66.3
(55.2–75.9)
57.6
(51.2–63.8)
48.5 35.0 3
2 age ≥ 45 and BMI > 25 kg/m2 ADA 0.65
(0.61–0.71)
66.3
(55.2–75.9)
57.6
(51.2–63.8)
48.5 35.0 3
3 criteria 2, and have additional risk factors, as followsa ADA extended 0.74
(0.70–0.79)
79.5
(69.0–87.3)
47.4
(41.0–53.8)
56.4 35.5 3
4 tailored risk scoreb present study 0.74
(0.70–0.79)
75.9
(65,.0–84.3)
54.1
(47.6–60.4)
53.5 35.8 3
Set criteria for African Surinamese
1 age ≥ 45 years DCGP 0.62
(0.58–0.67)
62.7
(50.7–73.3)
61.4
(57.0–65.6)
41.7 19.0 6
2 age ≥ 45 and BMI > 25 kg/m2 ADA 0.68
(0.65–0.75)
59.5
(47.4–70.5)
72.6
(68.5–76.3)
81.1 14.2 8
3 criteria 2, and have additional risk factors, as followsa ADA extended 0.79
(0.76–0.85)
78.1
(66.6–86.6)
60.7
(56.3–65.0)
44.1 22.1 5
4 tailored risk scoreb present study 0.80
(0.75–0.85)
79.2
(67.7–87.5)
62.3
(57.9–66.5)
42.8 23.0 5
Set criteria for ethnic Dutch
1 age ≥ 45 years DCGP 0.57
(0.51–0.63)
78.8
(60.6–90.4)
35.6
(31.2–40.2)
65.4 8.2 13
2 age ≥ 45 and BMI > 25 kg/m2 ADA 0.72
(0.65–0.77)
72.7
(54.2–86.1)
72.7
(60.3–69.3)
79.8 8.0 13
3 criteria 2, and have additional risk factors, as followsa ADA extended 0.79
(0.75–0.87)
71.9
(53.0–85.6)
71.2
(66.7–75.3)
31.7 15.0 7
4 tailored risk scoreb present study 0.78
(0.73–0.85)
77.4
(58.5–89.7)
68.8
(64.2–73.1)
34.3 14.9 7
  1. a physically inactive or 1st-degree relative with DM or high risk ethnic group (Hindustani Surinamese, i.e. South Asian) or hypertensive or reduced HDL and/or elevated triglyceride or history of cardiovascular disease.
  2. b optimal screening criteria identified from multivariate analysis (ethnic groups, age, BMI, waist circumference, resting heart rate, first-degree relative with DM, hypertension, history of cardiovascular disease)
  3. c bCI: The 'Confidence interval' around the score was estimated via a bootstrapping procedure [20], the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles are listed between brackets. The cut-off value for the SUNSET score was 0.200 for Hindustani Surinamese, 0.077 for African Surinamese and 0.055 for ethnic Dutch. DM = diabetes mellitus (fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l and/or self-reported), CI = 95%-confidence interval, DCPG = Dutch College of General Practitioners, ADA = American Diabetes Association, AUC = area under the curve, a measure of diagnostic accuracy, sens = sensitivity of the criteria (value closest to, but not over 80%), spec = specificity corresponding to the listed sensitivity, screen = percentage of the total population in this study that is screened, prev = prevalence in the screened population (the predictive value positive), NNS = number needed to screen to detect a case of DM in this study, BMI = body mass index