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Table 6 Multivariable regression models for the SF-36 summary scores and the EQ VAS score versus chronic diseases and demographic characteristics

From: Health-related quality of life among general practice patients with differing chronic diseases in Germany: Cross sectional survey

Variable PCSa MCSb EQ VASc
  βd(SE)e P value βd(SE)e P value βd(SE)e P value
Chronic diseases       
   Hypertension -1.131(1.457) 0.438 2.613(1.696) 0.124 1.279(2.871) 0.656
   Diabetes -1.282(2.297) 0.577 5.236(2.674) 0.051 6.196(4.523) 0.172
   Asthma/COPD -4.299(2.370) 0.070 -0.394(2.758) 0.886 -8.833(4.997) 0.078
   Heart disease -2.994(2.193) 0.173 -0.135(2.553) 0.958 -2.077(4.492) 0.644
   OA knee -11.009(4.092) 0.007 8.918(4.763) 0.062 0.315(9.433) 0.973
   Other joint diseases -5.339(3.339) 0.111 -0.260(3.886) 0.947 -8.303(7.007) 0.237
   Depression -1.255(2.197) 0.568 -8.664(2.557) 0.001 -11.222(4.460) 0.012
   Cancer -1.912(2.994) 0.523 -0.936(3.485) 0.788 -16.312(5.845) 0.006
   Back pain -5.126(1.332) <0.001 3.322(1.550) 0.033 0.089(2.688) 0.974
   Polyarthritis -6.960(4.046) 0.086 5.458(4.710) 0.247 -7.721(8.817) 0.382
   Other mental illness 2.586(3.297) 0.433 -6.999(3.838) 0.069 -6.841(6.174) 0.269
   Migraine -2.616(3.120) 0.402 1.364(3.631) 0.707 4.457(6.830) 0.514
Demographic characteristics       
   Self-illness -3.001(1.120) 0.008 -5.566(1.304) <0.001 -6.913(2.256) 0.002
   Illness-family members -1.568(1.166) 0.179 1.545(1.357) 0.255 1.098(2.351) 0.641
   Gender 0.654(1.124) 0.561 -1.545(1.308) 0.238 -2.450(2.223) 0.271
   Age -0.118(0.057) 0.039 0.065(0.067) 0.328 -0.004(0.114) 0.973
   High school or more education or a professional certificate 2.153(1.608) 0.181 2.254(1.872) 0.229 6.737(3.337) 0.044
   Academic degree or qualification 0.654(1.184) 0.581 -0.251(1.378) 0.856 -1.449(2.389) 0.544
Marital status (now married as reference)       
   Never married -3.923(1.455) 0.007 -1.603(1.693) 0.345 -5.557(2.805) 0.048
   Widowed -4.316(2.395) 0.072 2.474(2.787) 0.375 -7.208(4.972) 0.148
   Divorced/separated 0.403(2.046) 0.844 -7.951(2.382) 0.001 -5.603(4.062) 0.169
Smoke(no smoker as reference)       
   Smoker -1.632(1.224) 0.183 -0.518(1.425) 0.716 -3.372(2.468) 0.173
   Ex-smoker -1.249(1.206) 0.301 -0.966(1.403) 0.492 -3.357(2.407) 0.164
Employment (employed or self-employed as reference)       
   Retired -0.531(2.004) 0.791 0.021(2.333) 0.993 -6.745(3.881) 0.083
   Keeping house -2.283(1.649) 0.167 -0.065(1.919) 0.973 0.552(3.359) 0.869
   Student 1.699(1.927) 0.378 -1.632(2.242) 0.467 2.514(3.798) 0.508
   Seeking work -6.156(2.686) 0.022 0.218(3.127) 0.945 -9.265(5.160) 0.073
   Other 3.958(9.594) 0.680 3.817(11.167) 0.733 4.144(18.964) 0.827
Medical insurance (statutory medical insurance as reference)       
   Commercial medical insurance 0.005(1.464) 0.997 1.996(1.704) 0.242 0.943(2.965) 0.751
   Other 2.402(3.243) 0.459 0.181(3.774) 0.962 -4.325(6.417) 0.501
Constant 56.343(3.229) <0.001 43.542(3.759) <0.001 74.474(6.480) <0.001
F value 4.292 <0.001 3.247 <0.001 2.565 <0.001
R-square 0.256   0.207   0.175  
  1. a PCS: physical component summary score.
  2. b MCS: mental component summary score.
  3. c EQ VAS: EQ-5D visual analogue scale.
  4. d Regression coefficient (linear relationship).
  5. e SE = standard error.