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Table 1 Characteristics and clinical features of HIV-infected TB patients at the time of TB diagnosis, stratified by markers for viral hepatitis infection.

From: Viral hepatitis and HIV-associated tuberculosis: Risk factors and TB treatment outcomes in Thailand

Characteristics and clinical features All patients Non-reactive for HBsAg and anti-HCV Reactive for Unknown
  (n = 769) (n = 472)   (n = 17)
    Only HBsAg Only anti-HCV HBsAg and anti-HCV  
    (n = 43) (n = 210) (n = 27)  
Characteristics       
Age >34 years old 380 (49) 221 (47) 21 (49) 115 (55) 12 (44) 11 (65)
Male 538 (70) 294 (62) 32 (74) 175 (83) 25 (93) 12 (71)
>6th grade education 300 (39) 182 (39) 20 (47) 83 (40) 9 (33) 6 (35)
Employed 452 (59) 298 (63) 28 (65) 103 (49) 16 (59) 7 (41)
Single 237 (31) 125 (27) 14 (33) 83 (40) 10 (37) 5 (29)
Body mass index <18.5 443 (58) 270 (57) 24 (56) 116 (55) 21 (78) 12 (71)
Low TB knowledge 592 (77) 369 (78) 27 (63) 162 (77) 21 (78) 13 (77)
High TB stigma 500 (65) 294 (62) 26 (61) 146 (70) 20 (74) 14 (82)
Live in Bangkok 177 (23) 37 (8) 4 (9) 122 (58) 13 (48) 1 (6)
TB disease classification       
Pulmonary TB 461 (60) 261 (55) 21 (49) 146 (70) 21 (78) 12 (71)
   Smear positive 283 (37) 169 (36) 13 (62) 80 (38) 11 (52) 10 (59)
   Abnormal chest x-ray 415 (54) 233 (49) 17 (81) 134 (64) 20 (95) 11 (65)
Extra-pulmonary TB 230 (30) 168 (36) 16 (37) 37 (18) 5 (19) 4 (24)
Pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB 78 (10) 43 (9) 6 (14) 27 (13) 1 (4) 1 (6)
TB treatment       
Registered for TB treatment as new case 667 (87) 424 (90) 35 (81) 173 (82) 19 (70) 16 (94)
Received standard or extended HRZE 665 (87) 430 (91) 35 (81) 168 (80) 17 (63) 15 (88)
DOT by healthcare worker or village health volunteer 246 (32) 100 (21) 17 (40) 107 (51) 14 (52) 8 (47)
Drug and alcohol use, and incarceration history       
Currently smoke 205 (27) 94 (20) 10 (23) 86 (41) 10 (37) 5 (29)
History of alcohol use 538 (70) 317 (67) 30 (70) 159 (76) 20 (74) 12 (71)
History of methamphetamine use 304 (40) 146 (31) 11 (26) 128 (61) 15 (56) 4 (24)
History of marijuana use 267 (35) 118 (25) 11 (26) 120 (57) 13 (48) 5 (29)
History of ketamine use 26 (3) 11 (2) 1 (2) 11 (5) 1 (4) 2 (12)
History of ecstasy use 32 (4) 16 (3) 1 (2) 12 (6) 1 (4) 2 (12)
History of sleeping pill use 138 (18) 56 (12) 9 (21) 64 (31) 7 (26) 2 (12)
History of inhalant use 130 (17) 53 (11) 8 (19) 57 (27) 9 (33) 3 (18)
History of injection drug use 199 (26) 43 (9) 4 (9) 134 (64) 15 (56) 3 (18)
History of incarceration 303 (39) 122 (26) 17 (40) 144 (69) 16 (59) 4 (24)
High-risk sexual practices       
Have >4 sex partners in past 6 months 9 (1) 5 (1) 1 (2) 2 (1) 1 (4) 0 (0)
Not always use condom* 247 (74) 151 (73) 13 (59) 67 (77) 6 (67) 10 (100)
Have sex with a sex worker in past 6 months* 29 (4) 17 (4) 3 (7) 7 (4) 2 (7) 0 (0)
Men who have sex with men 42 (8) 25 (9) 7 (22) 6 (4) 2 (8) 2 (17)
Laboratory studies       
Aspartate aminotransferase ≥ 120 units/L 67 (9) 35 (7) 7 (16) 18 (9) 4 (15) 3 (18)
Alanine aminotransferast ≥ 165 units/L 17 (2) 10 (2) 2 (5) 3 (1) 1 (4) 1 (6)
Bilirubin >2 mg/dL 77 (10) 50 (11) 6 (14) 14 (7) 4 (15) 3 (18)
CD4+ T-lymphocyte* (cells/μL), median (range) 63 (0–93) 53 (0–750) 41 (1–675) 76 (0–823) 101 (1–893) 139 (18–552)
Medicines taken during TB treatment       
Co-trimoxazole 665 (87) 411 (87) 39 (91) 181 (86) 22 (82) 12 (71)
Fluconazole 454 (59) 309 (66) 27 (63) 100 (48) 11 (41) 7 (41)
Anti-retroviral therapy 328 (43) 247 (52) 25 (58) 48 (23) 5 (19) 3 (18)
  1. TB, tuberculosis; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HRZE, isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol; DOT, directly observed therapy; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; HCV, hepatitis C virus
  2. *Among those with available data/results